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Turkish Minorities in Erdoğan – Analysis – Eurasia Review

by Aykan Erdemir *

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's Turkish government over the previous yr
16 years have proven that totally different outcomes have been achieved in spiritual matters
minorities, that are each gestures of benevolence and
assault and persecution of the identical teams. this has been
particularly after the failed attempted coup in July
2016. What seems to be in conflict with the Turkish authorities
Rhetoric and minority insurance policies are in reality alternative ways
Making a consistent neo-Islamic strategy for minorities
Erdoğan has used this technique to strengthen his power at house and there

When 47-year-previous Erdoğan founded the Justice and Improvement Social gathering (AKP) in 2001, he claimed to have breached his Islamic previous and defined the orientation of his new celebration as "conservative democracy, 1 This promise ought to have led to rhetoric and politics interrupted with mentor Necmett Erbakan, leader of five consecutive Islamist parties from 1970 to 2011. Erbakan was recognized 2

What distinguishes Erdoğan's neo-islamam from the Erbakan Islamism
is a systematic dissimulation effort that the previous is committed to
describe the social gathering's ideology as democratic, participatory and tolerant.
Erdoğan has built ambassadors behind the scenes
and authoritarian governance that engages in social planning and conversion
Turkey on the Transatlantic Alliance and its Values ​​

The AKP's 16-year-previous holding power at face worth provides an astonishing set of contradictory discourses and practices ranging from seemingly warm uptake of minorities to chatter and hostile debate. For example, in Erdoğan's schizophrenic rhetoric, the phrase "Armenian" has appeared each as an finish-time and in his calling to "our Armenian brothers", as well as to the phrase of insult he knew before. I ask you to have mercy on…. 3.4

For example, at political degree, Erdoğan has overseen probably the most formidable return process for foundations of non-Muslim minorities in the history of the Republic of Turkey. 5 On the similar time, he has additionally attempted to wreck the same foundations by arresting their constituency, which has exacerbated these institutions. 6

on Erdoğan's obvious contradictions
Authorities policy and debate on minorities require a state of affairs
in their very own context, as well as mapping home and
international parameters. What seems to be contradictory
At first glance, it matches right into a common neo-Islamic recreation plan that strengthens
spiritual hierarchies, institutionalize discrimination, change
rights for benevolent acts to be thought-about and consolidate

Holistic and contextual evaluation of AKP's rhetoric and politics
reveals the next 4 ways of the Turkish government

  1. Robbery and Incitement of Minorities
    voters, solidify loyalists and strengthen
  2. Dissemination of Minority Conspiracy Theories to Deliver Turkish Public Attention to Authorities Political Failures
  3. Neo-Ottoman "benevolence" acts of presidency
    and its leadership "tolerant" at house and overseas, whereas also
    emphasizes and reinforces the revolutionary hierarchies between the judgments
    majority and minorities
  4. Implementing a policy of benevolence and shame
    minority teams, or concessions
    International Relations

Early Years of AKP

The facility of the AKP at the Basic Meeting in November 2002 – the yr after Erdoğan was based – was the results of the financial crisis in Turkey in 2001 and the next dissatisfaction with the elections. The political panorama of the country and the elimination of mainstream political parties from the parliament 7 In the course of the early years of AKP, Erdoğan was busy giving assurances to both the Turkish secular voter and the Western allies that he was a average politician who had left behind his Islamic past.

Erdoğan, a key tactic launched throughout these early years, was to mark his "reformist" strategy by in search of a liberal angle in the direction of minorities. 8 Turkey lives in ethnic and non secular minorities. Though the Kurds make up almost 20% of the inhabitants, the country has Arabs, Circassians, Georgians and Albanians. Along with the Alevi group, which accounts for about 10% of the population, other major religions embrace Armenians, Jews, Greek Orthodox, Syrian Christians, Latin Catholics, Protestants and Bahai. Though Turkey is a secular state that provides for equal remedy of all citizens, successive governments throughout the political spectrum have been unable to bear in mind the country's cultural variety and assure the liberty of residents of religion and religion – the shortage of Erdoğan noticed

the principle of secularism [ ] laiklik ) is included in the preamble to the Turkish Constitution and in Articles 2, 13, 14, 68, 81, 103, 136 and 174 thereof. 9 Nevertheless, most Turkish politicians and voters across the political spectrum do not perceive the secularism of separation and freedom from faith and state, both from religion and from faith. Thus, the term is retained and carried out beneath state management of religion. In follow, this special understanding leads to sectarian governance: the Sunnah Islam of the Hanafi ritual, favored and privileged type of authorities by the federal government, dominates all other religions and confessions. It was the Erdoğan's new Islamist rule, which brought the underlying logic to its fullest extent by coordinating the energies of its social gathering, state paperwork, media and trustworthy followers to institutionalize ambassadors and sectarian administration.

Erdoğan's makes an attempt to succeed in spiritual minorities
restoration of confiscated property, many churches and
synagogue, and a better dedication to spiritual leaders was not welcomed
solely minority communities, but in addition Erdoğan's liberal allies
Turkey and companions in the European Union. Therefore, these insurance policies
Erdoğan's legitimacy. However at the similar time he was
busy stabilizing its administration regularly by removing all the institutions

Erdoğan's involvement in minorities was less making an attempt
– establish equal remedy of all residents earlier than the regulation, and. ,
more indicative of his tolerance and benevolence


Through the years when Erdoğan increasingly confirmed one man
he had less have to safe the help of liberal allies at residence,
or the legitimacy of the European Union accession course of
granted. This in turn weakened his want for tolerance
and participation, and progressively moved to sacred minorities

In 2014, Erdogan claimed that "new volunteer lawyers" seek advice from the British Army officer T.E. Lawrence, who organized Arab rebellions towards Ottoman during World Conflict I, "camouflaged journalists, religious men, writers and terrorists", accusing them of "making Sykes-Picot contracts" as soon as again to expel the Turkish territory. 10 ] In 2017, he once more used the identical "new Lawrences" course in Kurdish anti-Semitic polemics on the Kurdistan Independence referendum 11 Through the years, Turkey's introduction of ethnic and non secular minorities in the fifth third column, which is uncovered to overseas interference, has develop into one among Erdogan's key strategies to take care of its governance. The best-wing nationalist action get together (MHP) has elevated this toxic environment for minorities, as they turned systemic objectives with a state sanction for hatred and prejudice. 13

The poisonous local weather after the Turkish minority membership

The fraud, incitement and persecution accepted by Turkish ethnic and non secular minority states are usually not distinctive to the AKP's 16-year rule. In reality, there’s a long-established mannequin that may be traced again to the Ottoman and Republican occasions 14 Notably noteworthy is how the AKP has structured and established such practices through the years via a nicely-funded and punctiliously organized marketing campaign. state that get together gear in addition to printing, visual and digital media. 15

The Emergency State of affairs in Turkey has undermined human rights, the rule of regulation and the privilege of a lawyer, which creates a particularly poisonous environment for probably the most weak teams in Turkey 16

Though spiritual minorities in Turkey shortly demonstrated their loyalty to their house nation instantly after a failed coup attempt, they still turned victims of a wave of hatred and violence in their supposed "involvement" in a coup. After a day of interruption, the spiritual leaders of the Jewish, Armenian, Greek-Orthodox and Syrian communities condemned it in a joint statement later joined by the representatives of Alev and Shiit. Nevertheless, these gestures are usually not sufficient to protect them from the growing minority anti-government supporters. 17,18,19

On August 7, 2016, Turkish Jewish and Christian spiritual leaders joined the demonstration of solidarity with the "Democracy and Martyrs" Rally, an indication towards the government's one million robust revolution 20 Three authorities officials who spoke of spiritual minorities injured in the rally provided drawers to "Byzantine seed", "Crusaders" and "Flocks 21

Hate speech directed at minority communities was later repeated in the Turkish intergovernmental media as part of an alarming tendency to link the coup to religious minorities Two days after the interrupted coup d'état, Fethullah Gülen, a US priest of Sunni, who is generally perpetrated by Turkish citizens as a coup d'état, was demanded by a government-acting journalist. as its chief, was a Jewish mother and an Armenian father. Catholic Church Hierarchy.22,23 Another government government issued a daily Vatican passport to show that Gülen is a Catholic cardinal. Plotters may hide in churches.25, 26 It is not surprising that there was not long before the incitement led to physical attacks on religious minorities.

Churches Malatya and Trabzon – Scenes of Deadly Attacks against Christians for a decade ago – were the first to be targeted.27, 28 Later, the Armenian high school in Istanbul was destroyed. 29 The hall of worship in Alev ( cemevi ) there and in the homes of Malatya was next when the Christian tourists were disturbed in Gaziantep. 30,31

Attacks against religious minorities have remained at a high level soon after a failed coup. On March 6, 2018, a lone weapon shot a shot from the window of St. Mary's Catholic Church in Trabzon, on the Turkish Black Sea coast. 32 This was the Fifth Confirmed Attack on the Church after the murder of its priest Andrea Santoro in 2006. 33 St. Mary was one of the churches that immediately attacked a failed coup because the crowds attacked gates with hammers and break its windows. 34

In February 2018, the ignition device damaged Saint Mary's front door one day before Father Santor's murder anniversary. 35 Bishop Paolo Biz Space, who took office in the Anatolian Apostle Apostle in 2015 – a place freed from the murder of his predecessor Bishop Luigi Padovese in 2010, referred to an assault "as certainly one of many episodes of menace and vandalism affecting the Trabzon Church every week. 36,37,38 Bizacion complained about attackers who commonly injury the gates and desecrate the basics of the trash. 39 When Trabzon's native media revealed the bishop's considerations, the governor denied the weekly assaults and claimed that the authorities had taken the required precautions 40

State pressured incitement to television

Dramas that spread the conspiracy theories of minorities – funded or sent by the state or intergovernmental markets – have develop into the simplest type of propaganda. Studies show that Turkish residents watch on common four hours of tv each day, and two-thirds of this time is used to observe TV collection, lots of which respect the Ottoman past and indoctrinate viewers with New Ottoman and Islamist ideologies 41

is the position of the Turkish state-controlled media in devastating and scam spiritual minorities using state funds, especially towards Jews and Christians. Probably the most famous example is Payitaht Abdülhamid The Final Emperor The Historical Drama, which is funded and despatched by the Turkish State Radio Radio Television TRT. 42

The enemies of the final Emperor eagerly resemble all spiritual or in any other case prisons in the Turkish government. . Within the exhibition, Jewish conspiracies have been typically associated with Britain and other European forces, the Catholic Church, the Socialists, the younger Turks and the Masons. The Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan himself typically refers to a conspiracy that’s controlled by a fuzzy doll grasp, whom he calls "master". "Mastermind", in flip, was the identify of a documentary film despatched to a leading intergovernmental news channel, which, amongst other issues, realized that the Jews had dominated the world for the past 3500 years. 43 On the similar time Each episode of the last Emperor has led to an upheaval in hostile dialog and incitement on the web. One Twitter consumer, taking a look at this state-funded drama, promised to turn the Euphrates and Nile rivers into Jewish cemeteries 44 One other Twitter consumer stated, "The extra I look The final emperor the more my enemies to the Jews are growing. You're superb, you filthy creatures. 45

Encouraging Courts

After a Coarse coup in Turkish courts and regulation enforcement system
have performed a number one position in the destruction of minorities and this
greatest for instance the farcical case towards US Pastor Andrew
Brunson. The pastor is more than 20 years earlier than his sudden arrest in 2016
Brunson, Presbyterian Minister, North Carolina, was preaching
peacefully Turkey's third largest metropolis, Izmir

Following the tried coup in July 2016, the Turkish authorities initially charged Pastor Brunson for membership in an armed terrorist group. 46 Later, they elevated the fees for espionage and tried to defeat the government, although there was no proof of those accusations. 47 Nevertheless, in a turbulent emergency in Turkey, he might have been confronted with up to seven years of detention, and if he was convicted, he had a life cycle. 48.49

Brunson's legal professionals have been solely capable of prosecute for 17 months in March 2018 after which only after it first leaked to the media. 50 62-page prosecution is a complicated assortment of conspiracy theories based mostly largely on the ridiculous accusations of three "secret witnesses". 51 In October 2018, the Turkish courtroom condemned Brunson for aiding terrorism, however condemned him only to serve the time he was entitled to go away 52

Pastor Brunson was a revered member of his group after his arrest and did not cease 53 When spiritual minorities in Turkey, especially Christians and Jews, got here to be scapegoats after a serious coup in July 2016, Brunson, like many other Church leaders, was beneath growing strain.

Turkish authorities media was shameless for its stain marketing campaign towards Pastor Brunson. The media claimed that the pastor would have turn into CIA's next leader if he had managed to assist coordinate the tried coup d'état towards Erdoğan. 54 When the bomb assault corresponded to the safest jail guards when Pastor Brunson was held, the story that accused the CIA of overlapping the assault went underneath the heading "Pastor bomb". 55

Such fats campaigns have also had a detrimental impact on the good Christian group. 2018 in a report on human rights violations The Affiliation of Protestant Church buildings in Turkey said that "during the Brunson case," many church buildings and particular person Christians have been pursued ", and" [a] gained an environment of uncertainty on the time, dominated by a small Protestant group. "

The conspiracy theories of Brunson's prosecution also included grave accusations against volunteers of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, including allegations that Turkish military universities have been members of the LDS Church since the 1990s, and all have the same trait: missing Fingering the LDS Church Prosecution Has Deprived Turkish Volunteers, which resulted in all of them being transferred to other countries, "because of the extended political rigidity in Turkey." 57 [19659002] The theory that the United States and especially Christians were responsible for the 2016 coup attempt was also aimed at targeting Brunson's pastor Brunson. Following the coup d'état, Erdoğan launched a hostage diplomatic campaign that mimic Iran's tactics to control Western citizens. , French, German, Greek and Swedish citizens, including journalists, researchers, human rights activists and Christian pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem Citizens who are being held in Turkish prisons on behalf of persons imprisoned abroad, the Turkish President publicly offered to release the pastor and proposed the exchange of prisoners with the United States with the extradition of Fethullah Gülen. 60,61

However, this offer was a red herring. Gülen was one of Erdoğan's closest allies over a decade after the Turkish president came to power in 2002. 62 If the United States had handed over Gülen and if he had come to court in Turkey, his testimony could have revealed the embarrassing details of their partnership, what harmed Erdoğan in the ballot box 63

When Erdoğan made this swap offer in September 2017, he was really seeking a change that was attended by Reza Zarrab, a Turkish and Iranian gold dealer who was going to try out sanctions against Iran in New York in November 64 The President of Turkey wanted to prevent Zarrab from disclosing information to the US authorities, which may affect his own role 65,66

Sworn rumors were confirmed by Zarrab's lawyers informing the judge that they were looking for "dipl Pastor Brunson's case clearly illustrates how spiritual minorities have grow to be scapegoats and exploited to harass improvement at house and abroad, as the

Erdoğan and Turkish courts have additionally cooperated in selling anti-Semitic conspiracies. . On November 21, 2018, Erdoğan informed the assembly of local elected officials that "the famous Hungarian Jew Soros" was behind Turkey's leading philanthropist and civil activist Osman Kavala, who, in accordance with Erdoğan, had "funded terrorists" nationwide 69 George Soros is a "man who gives people to share people and crush them." He has a lot cash and he spends it this manner. "

Kavala was arrested by the Turkish authorities on 18 October 2017 and held him 478 days without prosecution, banning him from rescuing 19 occasions without the prosecutors questioning him again. Like Brunson, for the primary time, Kavala's legal professionals have been investigating a 657-page prosecution from government businesses. The Turkish President and Prosecutors accuse Kavala of finishing up the 2013 Gezi Park demonstrations and the 2016 interrupting coup, demanding that he be sentenced to life in jail. 70

Erdoğan's anti-Semitic conspiracy theories that unite the 2013 national protests on the Jewish plot created by Kavala, Soros and his Open Society Basis (OSF) led the Basis's determination in November 2018 to go away Turkey. 71 Reacting to the OSF Announcement, the federal government government repeated day by day Erdoğan's anti-Semitic frenzy: “Open Society Foundation of the Jewish speculator George Soros, a great devil of the United States and Zionist Israel, escaped from Turkey.” 19659014] The government of Erdoğan has systematically smashed, corrupted, and focused Turkish minorities with choreographed benevolence and tolerance glasses for the same minorities who intend to shine its destroyed image at house and abroad. In 2009, Prime Minister Erdoğan met with the leaders of Turkish spiritual minorities for promising reforms and promises to be involved in "respect and love". 74 Former Turkish Deputy Prime Minister Bülent Arınç – he later penned Project Syndicate claimed that "after many years of official negligence and mistrust" Erdoğan listened to "issues and considerations" of religious minority leaders as "a clear signal of it 75

Erdoğan has continued the choreographic glasses of tolerance, though his government began to unfold minority conspiracies after the failed tried coup in 2016. On January 7, 2018, Erdoğan revealed the seven years of the Istanbul Orthodox Church in Istanbul, Sveti Stefan. 76 Though Erdoğan stated through the ceremony that, through the ceremony, The State's duty is to make sure that everyone can worship freely, the Turkish state's media stated: “The church was restored to the so-called“ state of the art ”. Rules of Reciprocity ”in change for Sofia's green mild to revive the mosque in Bulgaria's second largest metropolis Plovdiv 77

Erdoğan's properly-deliberate plan was imagined to be overcome
The mercy of the rotating President of the European Union, Bulgaria. At
on the similar time, Erdogan strengthened his personal worldwide picture
Defending minorities abroad, whereas pointing to their successors
might defend Muslim rights in former Ottoman regions

The Turkish government has also put ahead an identical plan to use it via the Turkish Christian minority. When Erdoğan introduced its plans for a cross-border operation in north-japanese Syria, each the Syrian Army Council and the Syrian Union's neutral declarations in December 2018 might lead to their communities being destroyed. 78,79 In the USA, analysts raised considerations that the proposed American withdrawal – after which the arrival of Turkish Islamic credentials – might jeopardize minorities, together with Syrian Christians and Yazides in the region. 80 ]

Shortly after these discussions, the Turkish authorities introduced its choice to authorize the primary building of a new church in the history of the Republic of Turkey. Coincidentally, it was a Syrian Christian church that had stopped since 2013. 81 Demonstrating goodwill to Syrian Christians at residence, regardless that it was late, was an try and reject fears that Turkey and its credentials would threaten Syrian Christians. Nevertheless, journalists who studied the venture more intently discovered that the plot of Istanbul, which had been awarded by the Turkish authorities to the Syrian Church, was a Catholic cemetery which had beforehand been seized by the state. The Battle Between Catholic and Syrian Communities Initiated a Venture Only By means of Pope Francis & # 39; has ensured that they’ll enter into meetings with Jewish leaders on their overseas journeys, together with Washington and London. 83,84

on the Washington Summit in April 2016 Haaretz assistant questioned Erdoğan's motives asking, "Has Erdogan tried to choose American Jewish leaders to wash their reputation?" 85 At the London meeting in Might 2018, the Turkish program, the government's media, introduced it: "The anti-Zionist Jewish group condemns the Israeli meeting with Erdoğan in London" and thus used it as a chance to promote the Islamic speech of the Turkish President. 86

The Erdoğan Minority Coverage

4 Practices of the Erdogan Authorities in Policy Implementation
in relation to minorities – all the time a scapegoat and incitement
Take motion on benevolence and tolerance – the objective is to form public opinion
and to strengthen ambassadors and sectarian hegemony at residence, but in addition
overseas coverage goals. These practices continue
the position of minorities The President of Turkey is in search of ways
extends his rule, which has been round for the sixteenth yr.

Erdoğan's key technique after the 2016 Interruption coup has been to strengthen his alliance with ultranationalist MHP.
The continued Islamist-ultra-nationalist partnership has not only led
on the Kurdish situation both at residence and abroad,
but in addition the sin and odor of the spiritual in Turkey
minorities. Loss of prospects for EU membership of Turkey,
which was the primary driver of democratic reform in the early 2000s
continued to exacerbate the rise of authoritarianism and Sovietism in 2006. t

Because of the continuing recession and failure of the Turkish financial system
Islamist and ultranationalist alliance
in overseas policy, it’s probably that Erdoğan's dominant block will double
its makes an attempt to scapegoat minorities. This represents the corporate
direct the voters' consideration away from the federal government
abuse and corruption, and it further aggravates
The Unsure Circumstances of Ethnic and Spiritual Minorities in Turkey

One of the best hope for Turkish minorities at this stage can be to keep away from Erdoğan's hatred of scapegoat and to convey his benevolence to his trustworthy subjects.

* tekijä: Aykan Erdemir, vanhempi kansanedustaja, Demokratian puolustusministeriö, entinen Turkin parlamentin jäsen

Lähde: Tämän artikkelin on julkaissut Hudson-instituutti


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  36. “Turkey, the Pope: the Jesuit Bizzeti in the office that belonged to Padovese,” Vatican InsiderAugust 14, 2015, http://www.lastampa.it/2015/08/14/vaticaninsider/eng/world-news/turkey-the-pope-the-jesuit-bizzeti- in-the-workplace-that-belonged-to-padovese-ZqnciZ8f0z8JPMQjd0JL3N/pagina.html ↝
  37. Rachel Donadio, “Catholic Bishop Stabbed in Turkey,” The New York OccasionsJune three, 2010, https://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/04/world/europe/04bishop.html ↝
  38. xplosivo contra la iglesia de Don Santoro. Obispo Bizzeti: en Trabzon intimidaciones constants [Explosives against the church of Father Santoro. Bishop Bizzeti: In Trabzon intimidations are constant],” Agenzia FidesFebruary 7, 2018, http://www.fides.org/es/news/63708-ASIA_TURQUIA_Explosivo_contra_la_iglesia_de_Don_Santoro_Obispo_Bizzeti_en_Trabzon_intimidaciones_constantes ↝
  39. “Trabzon’daki Kiliseye Her Hafta Saldırı Oluyor” [There is an Attack Against the Trabzon Church every week]Haber 61 (Turkey), February 7, 2018, https://www.haber61.net/trabzon/trabzon-daki-kiliseye-her-hafta-saldiri-oluyor-h315192.html ↝
  40. “Valilikten Kiliseye Saldırı Açıklaması” [The Statement of the Governor’s Office about the Church Attack]CNN TürkFebruary eight, 2018, https://www.cnnturk.com/turkiye/valilikten-kiliseye-saldiri-aciklamasi ↝
  41. Semuhi Sinanoğlu, “Parti Ebed Müddet: Bir Siyaset Teknolojisi Olarak Yeni Osmanlıcı TRT Dizileri”[The Eternal Party: Neo-Ottomanist TRT Series as a Political Technology]BirikimMarch 30, 2017, http://www.birikimdergisi.com/guncel-yazilar/8236/parti-ebed-muddet-bir-siyaset-teknolojisi-olarak-yeni-osmanlici-trt-dizileri ↝ [1 9659010]Aykan Erdemir and Oren Kessler, A Turkish TV blockbuster reveals Erdoğan’s conspiratorial, anti-Semitic worldview,” The Washington PublishMight 15, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/democracy-post/wp/2017/05/15/a-turkish-tv-blockbuster-reveals-Erdoğans-conspiratorial-anti-semitic-worldview ↝
  42. Ariel Ben Solomon, “Turkish ‘Documentary’ Says Jews Have Been ‘Mastermind’ For 3,500 Years,” The Jerusalem SubmitApril 16, 2015, http://www.jpost.com/Middle-East/Turkish-documentary-says-Jews-have-been-mastermind-for-3500-years-398299 ↝
  43. @KarayelFettah, “#HainlerinSonu Senn yarım bıraktığn o işi evelALLAH torunlarn gerçekleştirecek ve Fırat/Nil arasını Yahudi mezarlığı yapacak ecdadım Osmanlı [#TheEndofTraitors My ancestors the Ottomans, that task that you left unfinished will verily be realized by your grandchildren and turn the territory between Euphrates and Nile into a Jewish graveyard],” TwitterMarch 17, 2017, https://web.archive.org/web/20170510194952/https:/twitter.com/KarayelFettah/status/842825131760193537 ↝
  44. Serdar Korucu, “Ant isemit Mesajlar Payitaht’ın 4. Bölümü Üz erinden Sürdü” [Anti-Semitic messages continued through the fourth episode of The Last Emperor]AvlaremozMarch 23, 2017, http://www.avlaremoz.com/2017/03/23/antisemit-mesajlar-payitahtin-4-bolumu-uzerinden-surdu-serdar-korucu ↝
  45. Michele Kelemen, “Amid U.S. Calls For Release, American Pastor Remains Behind Bars In Turkey,” NPRApril 13, 2017, https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/04/13/523774885/amid-u-s-calls-for-release-a-u-s-pastor-remains-behind-bars-in-turkey ↝
  46. Onize Ohikere, “Jailed American pastor faces additional charges in Turkey,” WorldAugust 25, 2017, https://world.wng.org/content/jailed_american_pastor_faces_additional_charges_in_turkey ↝
  47. U.S. Fee on International Spiritual Freedom, Press Launch, “Turkey Misses Opportunity to Release Pastor Andrew Brunson, Sets Next Hearing to May 7,” April 16, 2018, http://www.uscirf.gov/news-room/press-releases-statements/turkey-misses-opportunity-release-pastor-andrew-brunson-sets ↝
  48. Laura Pitel, “Turkish prosecutor demands life sentence for jailed US pastor,” Financial OccasionsMarch 13, 2018, https://www.ft.com/content/042f7ab2-26cb-11e8-b27e-cc62a39d57a0 ↝
  49. Sibel Hürtaş, “Turkey doubles down in pastor row with US,” Al-MonitorMarch 16, 2018, https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2018/03/turkey-united-states-ankara-doubles-down-in-priest-row.html ↝
  50. Aykan Erdemir and Merve Tahiroğlu, “The Brunson farce,” The WorldJuly 17, 2018, https://world.wng.org/2018/07/the_brunson_farce; Lela Gilbert, “Experts Say Turkey’s Indictment of Rev. Brunson Full of ‘Blatant Lies,’” NewsmaxJune 18, 2018, https://www.newsmax.com/lelagilbert/reverend-brunson-turkey-Erdoğan/2018/06/18/id/866741/ ↝
  51. Aykan Erdemir and Merve Tahiroğlu, “Pastor Brunson is free. But the West still needs a policy on Erdoğan’s hostages,” The Washington SubmitOctober 15, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/democracy-post/wp/2018/10/15/pastor-brunson-is-free-but-the-west-still-needs-a-policy-on-Erdoğans-hostages/?utm_term=.49448642d645 ↝
  52. İsmail Saymaz, “En tuhaf El Kaide davası bugün başlıyor” [The strangest Al Qaeda trial to start today]RadikalNovember 21, 2011, http://www.radikal.com.tr/turkiye/en-tuhaf-el-kaide-davasi-bugun-basliyor-1070145 ↝
  53. Mevlüt Yüksel, “15 Temmuz başarılı olsaydı CIA’nın başına geçecekti” [Had July 15 succeeded, he would have become the director of the CIA]TakvimMight 20, 2017, https://www.takvim.com.tr/guncel/2017/05/20/15-temmuz-basarili-olsaydi-cianin-basina-gececekti ↝
  54. “Pastör Bombası” [The Pastor’s Bomb]TakvimSeptember 1, 2017, https://www.takvim.com.tr/guncel/2017/09/01/pastor-bombasi ↝
  55. 2018 Human Rights Violations ReportAssociation of Protestant Churches, February 20, 2019. ↝ [19659074]LDS Church briefly eradicating volunteers out of Turkey because of ‘political tensions,’” Deseret NewsApril 29, 2018, https://www.deseretnews.com/article/900017327/lds-church-temporarily-removing-volunteers-out-of-turkey-due-to-political-tensions.html ↝
  56. Eric S. Edelman and Aykan Erdemir, “Turkey’s president is holding Americans hostage. Why aren’t we doing anything about it?” The Washington PublishApril 15, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/democracy-post/wp/2018/04/15/turkeys-president-is-holding-americans-hostage-why-arent-we-doing-anything-about-it ↝
  57. “Turkey rift: German politicians demand economic pressure,” Deutsche WelleAugust 28, 2017, http://www.dw.com/en/turkey-rift-german-politicans-demand-economic-pressure/a-40262485 ↝
  58. Wendy Zeldin, “Turkey: More Emergency Decrees Issued,” Library of Congress International Authorized MonitorSeptember eight, 2017, http://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/turkey-more-emergency-decrees-issued ↝
  59. “Turkey’s Erdoğan links fate of detained U.S. pastor to wanted cleric Gulen,” ReutersSeptember 28, 2017, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-turkey-cleric/turkeys-Erdoğan-links-fate-of-detained-u-s-pastor-to-wanted-cleric-gulen-idUSKCN1C31IK ↝ [19659010]Daniel Dombey, James Fontanella-Khan, and Adam Samson, “Fethullah Gulen: one-time ally who became Erdoğan enemy,” Monetary OccasionsJuly 16, 2016, https://www.ft.com/content/e87a34e4-4ae7-11e6-8d68-72e9211e86ab ↝
  60. Gareth Jenkins, “The Balyoz Retrial and the Changing Politics of Turkish Justice,” The Turkey AnalystJuly 25, 2014, https://www.turkeyanalyst.org/publications/turkey-analyst-articles/item/331-the-balyoz-retrial-and-the-changing-politics-of-turkish-justice.html ↝
  61. Benjamin Weiser and Carlotta Gall, “Banker From Turkey Is Convicted in U.S. Over Plot to Evade Iran Sanctions,” The New York OccasionsJanuary 3, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/03/world/europe/turkey-iran-sanctions-trial.html ↝
  62. Devlin Barrett, “A gold dealer’s trial in New York deepens mistrust between the U.S. and Turkey,” The Washington SubmitNovember 26, 2017, https://www.w ashingtonpost.com/world/national-safety/a-gold-dealers-trial-in-new-york-deepens-distrust-between-the-us-and-turkey/2017/11/26/978753bc-cfb3-11e7-9d3a-bcbe2af58c3a_story.html ↝
  63. Devlin Barrett and Erin Cunningham, “Gold trader implicates Turkey’s president in corruption scheme,” The Washington PublishNovember 30, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-safety/gold-vendor-implicates-turkeys-president-in-corruption-scheme/2017/11/30/fd4e8a50-d614-11e7-95bf-df7c19270879_story.html ↝
  64. Dexter Filkins, “A Mysterious Case Involving Turkey, Iran, and Rudy Giuliani,” The New YorkerApril 14, 2017, https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/a-mysterious-case-involving-turkey-iran-and-rudy-giuliani ↝
  65. Merve Tahiroğlu and Eric S. Edelman, “Why Trump should not trade prisoners with Erdoğan,” The Washington PublishJuly 7, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/information/democracy-submit/w p/2017/07/07/why-trump-should-not-swap-prisoners-with-Erdoğan ↝
  66. Ali Kucukgocmen and Gulsen Solaker, “Soros foundation to close in Turkey after attack by Erdoğan,” ReutersNovember 26, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-security-soros/soros-foundation-to-close-in-turkey-after-attack-by-Erdoğan-idUSKCN1NV1KL ↝
  67. Selcan Hacaloglu, “Turkey Seeks Life in Prison for Businessman Kavala in Gezi Case,” BloombergFebruary 20, 2019, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-02-20/turkey-seeks-life-in-prison-for-businessman-kavala-in-gezi-case ↝
  68. Soros foundation to finish work in Turkey amid ‘baseless claims,’” BBC NewsNovember 26, 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-46347975 ↝
  69. The Open Society Basis in Turkey Ceases Its Operations,” Open Society Foundations November 26, 2018, https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/press -releases/open-society-foundation-turkey-ceases-its-operations ↝
  70. Harun Sekmen, “Soros’un çocuklarını Almanlar kucakladı” [Soros’s Children Embraced the Germans]Yeni AkitDecember 5, 2018, https://www.yeniakit.com.tr/haber/sorosun-cocuklarini-almanlar-kucakladi-558660.html ↝
  71. Aaron J. Leichman, “Turkey PM Meets with Religious Minority Leaders; Promises Reforms,” The Christian SubmitAugust 17, 2009, https://www.christianpost.com/news/turkey-pm-erdogan-promises-equality-for-religious-minorities-40313/ ↝
  72. Bülent Arınç, “Turkey’s Nation of Faiths,” Undertaking SyndicateMarch 2, 2012, https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/turkey-s-nation-of-faiths ↝
  73. Historic Iron Church in Istanbul reopens after restoration,” Associated PressJanuary 7, 2018, https://www.apnews.com/5eb2a43a98e14e1b80cf28d49ff6560f ↝
  74. “Istanbul’s ‘Iron Church’ re-opens after seven years,” TRT WorldJanuary 7, 2018, https://www.trtworld.com/turkey/istanbul-s-iron-church-re-opens-after-seven-years-13983 ↝
  75. Sanharib Barsoum, “Open letter from Syria Christians to US Christians: Do NOT allow Turkey to destroy us!,” Christian SubmitDecember 27, 2018, https://www.christianpost.com/voice/open-le tter-from- syria-christians-to-us-christians-do-not-permit-turkey-to-destroy-us.html ↝
  76. “URGENT CALL by MFS: #Syriac Christians on NE – Syria are at risk of extinction.” TwitterDecember 27, 2018, https://twitter.com/SyriacMFS/status/1078262042602205184 ↝
  77. Tom Gjelten, “U.S. Evangelicals Push Back Against Trump’s Syria Pullout Plan,” NPRJanuary 16, 2019, https://www.npr.org/2019/01/16/685651799/evangelicals-dont-like-trumps-syria-pullout-plan; Wladimir van Wilgenburg, “Christians fear Turkish attack could end Christianity in northeast Syria,” Okay24January 5, 2019, http://www.kurdistan24.net/en/news/deeea6a9-a23a-40bf-95ab-4094a1d924f7; Amy Austin Holmes, “US withdrawal from Syria will endanger Kurds, Arabs, Christians,” The HillDecember 27, 2018, https://thehill.com/opinion/national-security/422990-us-withdrawal-from-syria-will-endanger-kurds-arabs-christians ↝
  78. Pope Francis confirms development of Syriac church in Istanbul,” Day by day SabahNovember 15, 2017, https://www.dailysabah.com/minorities/2017/11/15/pope-francis-confirms-construction-of-syriac-church-in-istanbul ↝
  79. Sibel Hurtas, “Landmark church project stirs mixed sentiments in Turkey,” Al-MonitorJanuary 18, 2019, https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2019/01/turkey-landmark-church-project-stirs-mixed-sentiments.html ↝
  80. “Erdogan meets with Jewish leaders, seeks avenues to cooperation,” Jewish Telegraphic CompanyApril 1, 2016, https://www.jta.org/2016/04/01/politics/erdogan-meets-with-jewish-leaders-seeks-avenues-to-cooperati on ↝
  81. Raphale Ahren, “Amid spat with Israel, Turkey’s president hosts anti-Zionist Jews,” The Occasions of IsraelMight 16, 2018, https://www.timesofisrael.com/amid-spat-with-israel-turkeys-president-hosts-anti-zionist-jews/ ↝
  82. Louis Fishman, “Dirty Deals: What Was the Agenda Behind Turkey’s Erdogan Meeting American Jewish Leaders?,” HaaretzApril 5, 2016, https://www.haaretz.com/opinion/why-did-american-jewish-leaders-meet-with-erdogan-1.5427215 ↝
  83. Anti-Zionist Jewish group condemns Israel in assembly with Erdoğan in London,” Every day SabahMight 15, 2018, https://www.dailysabah.com/diplomacy/2018/05/15/anti-zionist-jewish-group-condemns-israel-in-meeting-with-erdogan-in-london ↝

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