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The intrigue of the analysis of the peace process in Afghanistan – Eurasia

Analytical Framework

After the spread of widespread deaths, vulnerability, maiming and land destruction in Afghanistan for over 17 years, the US authorities seems to have finally accepted its army defeat in its warfare in Afghanistan. The arms of the Taliban of Afghanistan; and looking for a method out of this nation. The first sign of this reality came when the US government accredited in current years the Taliban's demand for direct talks with the US government.

Later, when the previous US rival also started to take the lead in organizing the peace process in Afghanistan with regional nations, the US government additionally reflected the tacit acceptance of these efforts after the preliminary reluctance. The efforts of the United States, Russia, Pakistan, China, Turkey, and so on. in the peace process in Afghanistan have accelerated over the final six months. Lots of that is reported. Nevertheless, the noteworthy news revealed on 23 February 2019 by Yeni Safak, a Turkish newspaper, is that US Special Envoy Zalmay Khalilzad in Ankara (Turkey) met both Turkish President Spokesman Ibrahim Kalin and Russian President Vladimir Putin's Afghan Ambassador Zamir Kabulov working collectively to arrange the Afghan peace process. Zalmay Khalilzad additionally mentioned that the United States is looking for a peace treaty that may permit the United States to scale back troops and withdraw. (1).

Afghanistan The Taliban, in flip, mirrored pragmatism by talking not solely with representatives of the US, Russia and different regional nations, but in addition non-governmental Afghan politicians on the group of the peace process. The only remaining obstacles to the completion of this process are the refusal of the Taliban in Afghanistan to talk to the US-planted authorities in Kabul, the non-acceptance of the United States-led Afghan constitution, the place the current Kabul government was planted, and their refusal to simply accept is terminated prior to the conclusion of a peace treaty and the US / NATO army withdrawal from the country

As a way to analyze the remaining significant issue of this drawback and to determine the key indicators to unravel the drawback, certain points of it have to be clearly understood. These points are: a) Afghan psyche and conduct; (b) understanding of the Taliban in Afghanistan; (c) public pulse and evolving state of affairs in Afghanistan; and (d) Reading the Political Dialogue between the United States and Afghanistan in the Taliban.

Afghan Psychology and Conduct

In response to a report by the World Population Survey (US) on September 30, 2018, the estimated demographic structure of Afghanistan is 42% of Pashtun, 27% of Tajikistan, 9% of Hazara, 9% of Uzbekistan, 4% of Aikak, three% of Turkmenistan, 2% Baloch and 4% undefined "other" group (2).

In this context, it ought to first be clarified that, in learning the Afghan psychological and behavioral pattern, we must focus more on the psyche and behavioral patterns of "pashtunie" (also referred to as "Pukhtuns" and "Pathans"). & # 39;), which is the dominant competition in Afghanistan and has for centuries dominated the nation as the solely exception to the 9-month rule of Kabul, often known as Bacha-i-Saqao. As well as, in the previous centuries, overseas invaders (Moghals, British and Soviet) have been fought and compelled primarily from Afghanistan's pashtuns.

Afghanistan The Taliban at the moment are preventing towards the US and NATO troops, although some non-passions have additionally belonged to them. That is why understanding their psyche and behavioral pattern is significant as a result of any political answer in Afghanistan is definitely unimaginable without their approval.

Revealed materials on this topic is ample. Many of the material revealed in the United States, Europe, Russia, and so on. Magazines wouldn’t have much info on credibility. Nevertheless, books written by British and US officers / others who served or visited Afghanistan, in addition to Muslim writers of the similar categories, are thought-about to be helpful in learning this matter. However then the feedback made by British and US writers, even historically and scientifically, differ significantly.

These findings range from an distinctive one to excessive excessive reward. In fact, each of these extremes are usually not in line with recognized realities in their PhD dissertation on Afghanistan at the College of Peshawar 1993-1995. As well as, I used to be additionally fortunate to interview many individuals who had credible present information about the topic. These included knowledgeable individuals in the ruling elite of Afghanistan (some then left overseas), Afghan bureaucrats, senior Afghan scholars, Afghan Mujaheden commander, Soviet intelligent Afghan intelligence officer and retired Pakistani officers who had served long in Afghanistan, and so forth.

An in depth educational dialogue on the subject which is just too lengthy shouldn’t be mandatory in this document. The features of Afghanistan's psychic and behavioral patterns, that are immediately associated to the current Afghanistan Taliban political and army competition with the US / NATO skilled forces and the US-administered Kabul authorities, are briefly highlighted in the following paragraphs.

One of the adverse options of Afghanistan is because of their reported greed or enticement of cash, which is why they will change their help to the cost supervisor. In this context, sure points have to be borne in mind. First of all, this unfavorable function is one of the human shortcomings in some or many individuals, but not in the entire nation – as in the case of different residents of the world

Secondly, the US authorities has tried over the past 17 years to take advantage of this destructive function in Afghanistan's "large populations" by paying massive bribes aimed toward To strengthen the United States 'labor tentacles' in the country, as revealed in the stories (three), however it isn’t

Third, the United States bribes have by no means worked with the Taliban of Afghanistan as a result of they belong to the majority of Afghans who cannot be purchased for greed or fortune.

Afghanistan's second reported damaging behavioral sample is their division into tribal strains or nationwide degree inconsistencies. That is true if tribes and clans stay uncontrollable. In this interview, Professor Rasool Amin (Afghanistan), head of the Department of Social Sciences at the University of Kabul, talked about in his interview that the id of the Afghan individuals was not based mostly solely on the concept of nationality. In truth, it’s the reverse. Every particular person needs their very own id, then the family, the tribe, and finally the nation. No individual can tolerate one other individual's administration. Similarly, the domination of another family, one other tribe, and a overseas nation is just not tolerated (4)

Professor Rasool Amin's statement is right (it corresponds to the actuality of the country). Nevertheless, medieval and up to date historical past has proven that if these very Afghan tribes are managed by a competent chief and result in a mutually acceptable trigger, they actually merge to create immense political and army energy – examples: a) one Pashtun head of the tribe Ahmad Shah Abdali united Afghans to defeat overseas Iran domination (cause) in 1747 AD, established the first Afghan government in Afghanistan and then expanded its empire to Iran, Central Asia and India; and (b) Mullah Umar, the former Mujahedeen commander of Pashtun, united the tribes to type the Taliban of Afghanistan in 1994 to pressure the Soviet-led government to overthrow the staff' warlords in the nation (cause).

One of the most properly-recognized scholar historians was Khawaja Naimatullah Herwi. He had served in Afghan and Moghal courts. His most credible work about the Afghans “Tareekh-e-Khan Jahani wa Makhzan-e-Afghanistan” (5) was written in 1612, that is, just after the ruling Lodhi (Pashtun) dynasty in India had fallen. In the first part of the ebook, Herwin's makes an attempt to provide spiritual holiness to an Afghan gender could be thought-about neutral.

The remaining elements of his guide, nevertheless, are genuine (equal to the actuality of the country). The second and third elements of his guide provide beneficial details of occasions that can reveal vital details about Pashtun / Afghan psychics and behavioral patterns, specifically: a. and (b) their capability to supply joint political and army energy, if it is led by a robust and competent leader.

Understanding the Taliban of Afghanistan

Relating to the Afghan Taliban's conduct (the ruling majority in Afghanistan) without its being adopted / included into Afghanistan as a potential political answer, the following elements have to be borne in thoughts:

a. The term Taliban principally refers to college students of Madresah (spiritual / theological faculties). These Madresahs are linked to at least one Islamic faculty of thought that is dominant in Afghanistan. Although students and academics belong to totally different Afghan tribes, the Taliban's ideological Islamic teachings of religion compatibility bind them strongly, as well as their tribal collective, disciplined and united energy

b. Another recognized issue, which is the cause for the robust unity of the Taliban in Afghanistan and their incorrect willpower to battle for the US / NATO troops and the US-dominated authorities, is their deep-seated psyche (as well as the Afghans) who doesn’t tolerate any overseas occupation or government planted by foreigners. Throughout their complete historical past of historical past, they’ve all the time fought furiously and continued to battle the era after the era till the alien occupation and the authorities it planted has taken over.

c. Many publishing workplaces often describe the Taliban of Afghanistan as inflexible. In truth, they, like other Afghans, have additionally labored virtually – of course, inside the limits of the above-talked about psychic and behavioral patterns

On this context, we just mention two examples: First, during the Taliban government of Afghanistan, Indian plane have been overturned on December 24, 1999, made to Afghanistan and 155 individuals on board have been taken hostage. The Taliban regime in Afghanistan was very skilful of the peaceful cessation of this excessive approach of lifting. The Washington Submit launched on January 1, 2000 (the day of the peaceful cessation of the Ambassador) a printed report – some gadgets on this report: the report emphasized that although India was predominantly a Hindu country, it had reverse relations with the Taliban and had not recognized their governments in Afghanistan in the Taliban nevertheless, the authorities acted diplomatically with pragmatism and labored onerous to help Indian Overseas Minister Jaswant Singh prepare an Indian compromise with highjackers; after the freeway was closed, Taliban Overseas Minister Butwakil and Indian Overseas Minister Jaswanth Singh spoke together; and "Singh expressed India's" gratitude and indebtedness "to Butwakil and the Taliban regime, in particular" his private excellence ", their" help and co-operation "for a peaceful end to the crisis"; Erick de Mul, Head of U.N. The Afghan representative, who had helped during the crisis, additionally said that "real credit goes to intelligence, to those who used their brains properly and especially to the Taliban"; Pamela Constable, Washington Publish's Office Manager in Afghanistan and Pakistan, additionally careworn: “The role of Taliban officials was crucial to persuade hijackers to surrender” (6).

Secondly, a non-Pashtun-Tajik-led group of Afghanistan's North Federation was supported by the Soviet Union and supported by Iran. It stored the Soviet-backed authorities in Kabul until Afghanistan's Taliban had withdrawn from Kabul. Whereas still pushed, its headquarters have been in Mazar-e-Sharif, the northern metropolis of Afghanistan. Based on a BBC report, Common Abdul Malik Pahlawan was usually believed to be chargeable for the brutal massacre of up to three,000 Taliban prisoners when summoned to Mazar-e-Sharif (7). When the Taliban of Afghanistan attacked and captured Mazar-e-Sharif, 11 Iranian diplomats and Iranian correspondent died. In reprisals, Iran used more than 70,000 troops throughout Afghanistan's borders. Nevertheless, the Taliban had peace and didn’t turn into a conflict till the matter was resolved via the UN (eight).

d. During the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, reviews on the strict software of Islamic Sharia regulation in the Taliban have been typically revealed. Nevertheless, several journalists ignored the undeniable fact that the efforts of the Taliban authorities, because of its strict administrative Islamic sharia discipline, have been capable of get rid of the unfold of illegality, crime and tyranny to the Afghan inhabitants. warlords and reborn villains Mujahedeen groups; giving a lot wanted aid to the men of Afghanistan. That is why the plenty in Afghanistan absolutely supported the Taliban's efforts to increase their regime in a country with a lot better-outfitted Soviet-backed forces in the North of Afghanistan led by Tajik-led warlords and reborn rogue states. This reality has additionally been highlighted in the Oxford Educational The British Journal of Criminology (UK), "The Taliban came to power because they were able to restore order to armed gangs and Mujahideen militias in terrorized facilities" (9).

Governance in Afghanistan The Taliban authorities was that by strictly making use of Islamic Sharia regulation and the Afghan Taliban regime introduced Afghan poppy cultivation to less than 10,000 hectares as an alternative choice to the Afghan dairy financial system. in 2001 before the US invasion and occupation of the nation. Since then, after the US occupation, and later beneath the United States-instigated Kabul governments, poppy cultivation started to grow quickly, as in the chart of the UNODC Afghanistan Opium Survey 1994-2013, revealed on 2 April 2014 by the BBC (10). exhibits that opium cultivation in Afghanistan was over 200,000 in 2013. In response to UN information dated Might 21, 2018, poppy cultivation in Afghanistan in accordance with the US-planted government has reached a document high of an estimated 328,000 hectares in 2017 (11) . [19659003] The above-talked about socio-financial destruction of Afghanistan by way of the occupation of the US and NATO, immediately and beneath the authority of the governments implanted by the United States, is the reality of the soil. Comparable destruction was also brought on by Afghanistan throughout the occupation of the Soviet Union (Soviet Union). A quantity of publications revealed on 10 November 2012, entitled "The Impact of the Soviet-American War on Afghan Society", Dr. Imtiyaz Gul Khan, Govt. J&Okay Noteworthy (12).

In this context, some of his research findings ought to be taken under consideration in order to know the reality of the world of Afghanistan, which can assist to determine opportunities for publish-US withdrawal. state of affairs. It ought to be famous in the paper that when discussing the socio-financial injury brought on by the Soviet Union to Afghanistan, Dr. Imtiyaz Gul Khan additionally explains the successful approach in which the Taliban government in Afghanistan revived the Afghan financial system after the Soviet Union was removed. These measures included the resumption of inter-regional commerce, the concessions granted to businessmen to advertise commerce, the revitalization of agriculture and business, the improve in livestock and the encouragement of overseas investment in Afghanistan to implement unfinished and new tasks, and so forth.
. The above-talked about UNODC chart displaying the cultivation of opium in Afghanistan from 1994 to 2013 also exhibits Dr Imtiyaz Gul's declare that the Taliban regime in Afghanistan was capable of revive the damaging financial system of its country's Soviet Union. This UNODC map exhibits that the Taliban regime in Afghanistan had managed to scale back its opium cultivation in its own country to nicely under 10,000 hectares by 2001, just before the US army occupation of the authorities.

It’s clear that massive opium cultivation was solely potential as a result of the financial stimulus measures of the Afghan Taliban regime offered better various financial means for the men of Afghanistan to make a dwelling. After which the socio-financial destruction of Afghanistan started once more as a consequence of the US army occupation; and poppy cultivation flourished once more, in line with the UN, that opium cultivation rose once more to about 328,000 hectares in 2017.

Public Pulse and Rising State of affairs in Afghanistan

Studying Public Pulse and Rising State of affairs Afghanistan is essential to detect the chances associated with organizing the peace process in Afghanistan. In this context, it is notably necessary to concentrate to 3 elements: (a) the victims of Afghanistan and the destruction of their nation on account of this US struggle, (b) the US electoral system and mechanism; Afghanistan's Taliban regime in their managed and affected districts – a facet that is growing, albeit much less reported

In line with the VOA report of 8 November 2018, deaths (Deaths) in Afghanistan in October 2018 have been about 147,000 individuals, together with 6,344 American soldiers and more than 1100 allies (13). This meant about 140,000 Afghan deaths, including males, ladies and youngsters – and most reviews also point out that these figures are usually underestimated. This clearly signifies that the quantity of Afghans who’ve died, wounded, robbed and expelled from their houses have to be tens of millions. As well as, the Afghan nation is heavily destroyed underneath the army occupation of the US / NATO and US-seated governments. To ensure that the Afghans to increase their extreme distress, as of 2018, in response to the UNAMA document, the US army magazine Stars And Stripes, dated 24 February 2019, has civilian casualties, in addition to youngster victims, reaching a report high in 2018 'largely on account of the US environment. '(14). The monumental human disaster is definitely rooted in the Afghanistan pressure, there are two robust requires (a) excessive hatred of the US and NATO and US-seated governments; A lot has been revealed in Afghanistan's electoral system and mechanism, in and out of doors Afghanistan, that not all recurring elections to carry elections have given rise to confidence in Afghanistan's troops. Conclusions from only two DW stories are enough to prove this. Magazines from the DW report dated 18 October 2018: “Since the US attack in Afghanistan in 2001, every election has been more fraudulent than the last. Experts say that this is the result of the nation's shaky democratic foundations. – 'Fraud and irregularities have occurred in the 2004 presidential elections and the 2005 parliamentary elections'. – 'Expectations broke down in the 2009 Presidential vote, characterized by security issues, accusations of widespread voting rounds and other electoral fraud'. – "The deterioration in the quality of the elections in Afghanistan continued in the parliamentary polls held in 2010, when many former warlords and strongholders secured the seat of the legislator" (15).

And the report by the masses of Afghan masses on the political process of 20 October emphasized: "Experts say that most Afghans do not have much faith in the political process because the country's politicians have not done much for the people in recent decades" (16). Already now, the presidential elections in Afghanistan were delayed until April and were delayed until July this year. All these facts clearly show that in Afghanistan, which is a country of tribal and "well armed" social texts, every thought, the organization of peace in Afghanistan by establishing an electoral system between the US and NATO through this electoral system and mechanism, is certainly futile.

Another very important factor that has gradually evolved in Afghanistan is the fact that in Afghanistan, the Taliban has an administrative or administrative system in their respective territories, which they have controlled or influenced. either wholly or in cooperation by choosing Kabul government officials. The reports also show that their area of ​​control or influence is also increasing and exceeds 40-50% previously reported

Two of these reports are worth noting for credible publication points. One of them is the latest research report entitled “One Country Two Rules (3)”, dated February 26, 2019, from the Afghan Analyst Network (AAN), an unbiased policy research and analysis organization registered in Germany and Afghanistan. The Scandinavian nations have a core group based mostly in Kabul, Afghanistan. It highlights: Dasht-e Archi, an space in the north-east of the province of Kunduz, is nearly totally beneath the management of the Taliban. They’ve established shadows, regional administrative buildings, providers of elected governments and non-governmental organizations. Taliban screens primary providers resembling schooling and well being at Dasht-e Arch (17).

Another is the Overseas Improvement Institute (ODI) report, which is London's (United Kingdom) Unbiased Worldwide Improvement Middle. humanitarian points. Its June 2018 report is known as "Life Under the Taliban Shadow Board". Some of the summaries that affirm the AAN report and with extra element are as follows: Based mostly on greater than 160 Taliban fighters and officials, as well as civilian interviews, this paper appears at how the Taliban dominates the lives of tens of individuals of hundreds of thousands of Afghans dwelling beneath their government. The Taliban regime is extra constant than ever before; Excessive-degree commissions are dominated by sectors reminiscent of finance, well being, schooling, regulation and taxation, with clear command chains and insurance policies. When authorities and assist businesses provide public goods and providers, the Taliban is appearing and overseeing them. Service ministries have come throughout an area Taliban; Most provincial or district well being or schooling officers stated they have been in direct contact with Taliban colleagues, and a few have even signed formal memoranda of understanding with the Taliban. to work, pay their salaries when they don’t, and examine the shares of gear and medicines. Additionally they exert strain on NGOs to broaden well being providers in rural areas and enhance the high quality of providers. In public faculties, they regulate the state curriculum, practice academics and faculty employees, supervise instructor participation and observe courses.

Legal points have develop into increasingly far-reaching. The dimension of the Taliban regime exhibits that they don’t have to formally occupy the space to regulate what is occurring inside it. Administration does not come into the space, however precedes it. The Taliban's influence on providers and everyday life extends far beyond the areas from which they are often stated to dominate or compete. The rules imposed by the Taliban on main continents are a actuality in which few in the worldwide group are prepared to take part (18).

Reading the United States and Afghanistan's political dialogue with the Taliban

Though the United States has been relentless efforts to seek Afghan Taliban contractual peace settlement, as well as the Afghan Taliban's constructive response to persevering with the dialogue with Zalmay Khalilzad continues, there isn’t a clear notified of any Contracting Social gathering facet, which both events have lastly accepted. The only thing that’s now clearly seen is that each side need to find a solution to end the conflict. Thus, the conclusion as to what features of the peace settlement can or is probably not finally agreed might be guessing, albeit "calculated".

On the Taliban aspect of Afghanistan, they are nonetheless (a) refused to talk to the government of the United States to plant in Kabul; Commencement of NATO's army withdrawal from the country

The firm willpower of the Taliban of Afghanistan to not cease the hearth until their respective demand has been reached, they confirmed up late on February 28, 2019 by battling a strategic army set up in Camp Shorab Helmand, the place the US army operation is working, killing dozens of Afghan troops (19). It is very important observe that this lethal attack started each two days in the Doha negotiations between the US Zalmay Khalilzad and the Taliban delegation in Afghanistan, however it did not have an effect on the promotion of these negotiations. US Lack of ability to Deny Afghan Taliban "Strength"

On the US Planted Kabul Authorities Its President Ashraf Ghani continues to complain that the United States has displaced its authorities in the peace talks with the Taliban of Afghanistan

also complained about the excessive number of deaths in Afghanistan's security forces – 45,000 thus far throughout his term of workplace (20). The plight of these US-outfitted and educated Afghan safety forces has really worsened in current years and continues to worsen over time. The UPI report of Might 1, 2018, which mentions the US government watchdog, mentioned that “Desertions and high accidents have drastically reduced the number of US-funded Afghan security personnel over the past year… .. to just under 300,000” (21). One other New York Occasions report on September 21, 2018 additionally confirmed that the moral degradation of the Afghan security forces was to mention that the day by day deaths of Afghan troopers and cops have been more than twice as excessive as last week: about 57 days; that the governments of Afghanistan and the United States determined to maintain the deaths of the battlefield secret; and that, by the beginning of 2017, the military lost 2.9 % of the violence, masking losses from accidents, hints and failures again. This meant that more than a third of its forces had to get replaced annually with new recruits (22). This can be a essential facet.

It is subsequently essential to notice that Afghanistan's security forces and US-US troops are unable to stop the clearly growing area of ​​the Taliban in Afghanistan. management / influence in the country, as talked about in the above-mentioned AAN and ODI studies – an evolving state of affairs that clearly demonstrates that the preservation of the US-planted Kabul authorities is feasible shortly. This can be a stark reality on Earth, of which at the least US President Donald Trump and his "Earth" ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad can’t be expected to overlook.

The "establishment" of the United States (Pentagon, CIA, and so on.) The hawks which are nonetheless there, nevertheless, still seem to be making an attempt to "pull" the US army train in Afghanistan. New York Timesin 28. helmikuuta 2019 laatiman raportin mukaan ”Kaikki amerikkalaiset joukot vetäisivät Afganistanista seuraavan kolmen tai viiden vuoden aikana uuden Pentagonin suunnitelman mukaisesti, jota tarjotaan rauhanneuvotteluissa, mikä voisi johtaa Kabulin hallitukseen, joka jakaa vallan Talebanin kanssa ”(23).

Afganistan Taleban hylkää luonnollisesti tämän Pentagonin suunnitelman, koska ulkomaisten joukkojen pitkäaikainen oleskelu maassa ja pelkästään liittyminen toiseen Yhdysvaltojen määräämään hallitukseen välittömästi rikkoa Afganistanin Talebanin listan ja tiedoston yhtenäisyyden siteet, kuten tässä artikkelissa on selitetty.

Afganistan Taleban hyväksyy omalta osaltaan osallistavan hallituksen muodostamisen, mukaan lukien muut afganistanilaiset ryhmittymät. nykyisen Yhdysvaltain istutetun hallituksen jäsenet ja heidän valtakirjojensa jäsenet. He voivat myös lopettaa tulipalon kokonaan, kun USA hyväksyy sellaisen kaavan, joka sisältää tällaisen hallituksen muodostamisen ja ulkomaisten joukkojen aikaisemman vetäytymisen. Sen lisäksi, että Afganistan Taleban ei ole koskaan pyrkinyt minkään maan hyökkäykseen / terroristiin;

Lisäksi Afganistan Taleban, jos kyseessä on tällainen sopimus, hyväksyy myös todennäköisimmin Yhdysvaltojen taloudellisten hankkeiden myöntämisen maassa


Hyvin halutun Afganistanin rauhanprosessin kohtalo on kuitenkin Yhdysvaltojen presidentin Donald Trumpsin pyrkimyksissä päästä pois selkeästi "menettämästä" sodasta, joka maksaa suuresti Yhdysvaltojen veronmaksajien rahoja, ja Yhdysvaltojen perustaminen "kiinni".

(1). https://www.yenisafak.com/en/world/us-envoy-hails-turkeys-role-in-afghan-peace-3475273
(2). http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/afghanistan-population/
(3). Revealed typically in studies – one example ‘With Bags of Cash, CIA Seeks Influence in Afghanistan’ https://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/29/world/asia/cia-delivers-cash-to-afghan-leaders-office.html
(four). Professor Rasool Amin’s interview dated 01 Might 1994.
(5). Herwi, Khawaja Naimatullah. Tareekh-e-Khan Jahani wa Makhzan-e-Afghani. Urdu Science Board, Lahore. 1986. Second.
(7). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1615824.stm#pahlawan
(9). The British Journal of Criminology, Volume 53, Challenge 2, 1 March 2013, Pages 179–196, https://academic.oup.com/bjc/article/53/2/179/41621
(10).Afghanistan: Earlier than and after the Taliban 2 April 2014 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-26747712
(11). https://news.un.org/en/story/2018/05/1010332
(12). Influence of Soviet and US Conflict on Afghan Society with special reference to Rural Life —– http://www.criterion-quality.com/impact-of-soviet-and-us-war-on-afghan-society-with-special-reference-to-rural-life/
(14). https://www.stripes.com/news/un-american-airstrikes-contribute-to-record-number-of-children-civilians-killed-in-afghanistan-1.570188
(17). https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/one-land-two-rules-3-delivering-public-services-in-insurgency-affected-dasht-e-archi-district-in-kunduz-province/
(18). https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/12269.pdf
(20). https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-47005558
(21). https://www.upi.com/Casualties-desertions-shrinking-Afghan-security-force-watchdog/6431525189991/