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Rediscovering The Purpose Of JPME II – Analysis – Eurasia Review

By Charles Davis and Frederick R. Kienle *

Protection and army methods of the Secretary of Protection James Mattis and
Joseph Dunford, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Employees
the joint pressure so as to meet transregional, multidimensional, and
multifunctional threats to U.S. nationwide safety. In addition to
advanced capabilities and integrating concepts, another essential Enabler
for a extra Deadly, versatile, and resilient joint drive.
Jointness, which embodies trust, cooperation, and interdependency,
continues to develop over the Armed Forces and has proved to be
integral to success is trendy Battlefields. At present’s complicated security
surroundings demands really joint warfighters who are capable
snug, and confident when working features, domains, and
cultures. A process for buying this important Enabler already exists
but is essentially disregarded. The Department of Defense (DOD) black
rediscover the process if it is to achieve the degrees of
National Defense

The panel is a army schooling led by Congressman
Ike Skelton in the late 1980s restructured joint schooling to overcome
Service parochialism that beset previous army operations. Reforms beneath
The Goldwater-Nichols of the Reformation Act of 1986
sought prematurely inside the U.S. army, and, since then,
many have the success of the joint
pressure. Of the three phases of joint professional army schooling
(JPME) created by the Skelton Panel, the second part, JPME II
unique with its requirement to substantively acculturate army
officers to the totally different Service cultures. The panel decided that amongst
the four directed outcomes of the JPME II an important is the
improvement of “joint attitudes and perspectives.” 2
The panel keenly understood that officers possess these qualities
are imperative to joint operations.
Sustaining and advancing jointness is an ongoing, transformative
effort — it is a journey and never an endstate — and the panel's reforms to
have been the centerpiece of the laws. The path to
larger jointness was properly designed inside the context of JPME II, and
the position of the joint acculturation within the process stood entrance and middle.
Not only was JPME II anticipated to organize for his or her first joint
task, nevertheless it was additionally designed for the belief and common

Three many years after the reforms, nevertheless, the
understanding and vision set by the panel have pale. The
means to Foster can also be endangered by
those who misunderstand or underappreciate both its principal end result
and preparatory nature. The Chairman's accreditation of packages for the
delivery of JPME II isn’t all the time the true capacity of those
the event of joint
attitudes and views by way of the joint acculturation of students.
For end result of mission, objectives, and structure, this consequence is unlikely
a lot less assured. And, with historical
JPME II earlier than
their preliminary joint assignments. The failure to organize officers for
joint assignments unnecessarily burdens joint instructions with members who
rigidly embrace and Advocate Service-centric approaches to joint
problems because they were not educated in any other case. Avoiding or
forfeiting the opportunity for acculturation and inculcation of
jointness before embarking on a joint task places officers, their

In effect, DOD file to determine the complete range
maturity, and in any other case must be. Jointness
derives from the mixing of different service cultures and
competencies, and it requires teamwork, unfettered by parochialism,
amongst all Providers and army departments.3 Jointness exists nowhere
realm, which signifies that jointness is perishable and have to be
Constantly-cultivated. JPME II is the keystone instructional expertise
for cultivating broader and Deeper joint attitudes and views
inside the pressure. Because of this, DOD should mirror on and recalibrate
JPME II, if it is to
allow the joint challenges to prevail over the precedence challenges

The future safety setting requires
new investment and progress in the number of
platforms. However genuinely growing the lethality, flexibility, and
resiliency of the joint drive in investment in individuals as properly.
DOD black broaden and deepen jointness within the pressure beyond what has
already been achieved – to develop more officers who’re even more joint-minded
than their predecessors. Such officers value the contributions of the
other providers more willingly when working
collectively as a joint staff. Solely in this means can the joint pressure reach the
degree of interdependence required to now environment friendly make use of new
capabilities and platforms as a result of jointness stays contingent on how
Servicemembers assume and feel — it isn’t only a collection of
capabilities and platforms.

Jointness is nothing if it isn’t valued by
who have to be prepared to
belief one another while Collaborating to accomplish joint army
Goals. These aren’t simply fostered by the
highly effective providers as they practice, educate, and culturally indoctrinate
their members. Most often, Service parochialism and bias are the standard
outputs, and this means joint attitudes and perspectives have to be
cultivated externally. The JPME system develops army officers alongside
three axes: character — moral and moral leadership; joint
acculturation — learning from one's friends; and Mental
improvement — essential considering and psychological agility.4
Of the axes, joint acculturation is probably the most important when the aim is
to supply efficient joint officers. With the creation of JPME II, the
purpose of the Skelton Panel was to instill joint attitudes and views
"no in need of a
by way of a socialization
processake each time and emphasis.5
This socialization process is JPME
II Aside from other phases – no different part
requires instilling joint attitudes and views in college students as the
principal end result

The Skelton Panel described the creation of joint
attitudes and perspectives solely
army coverage file to explain the method of joint
acculturation that makes JPME II distinctive. However the panel meant for JPME
II to be in-residence only, multi-service in composition, and carried out
is impartial, non-service-centric ground with a view to obtain joint
acculturation.6 The panel’s
circumstances are crucial because optimum acculturation requires
structured, Meaningful, and purposeful contact between members belonging
to totally different cultures. Information of the preconditions for achievement
acculturation stipulate the tutorial necessities. Within the context of
PME, these necessities mean JPME II college students must work collaboratively
towards a standard objective – a condition the place they need to cooperate for everybody
to succeed. It also happens within a
college students are balanced in Service
representation and minimal disparity in rank.7
Qualitative joint acculturation outcomes for officers of different
Providers are also controlled by a stability
of Collaboration, the period of their contact, and the standard of
their expertise. On this means, Service-centric views and biases are
shortly challenged and decreased. In consequence, officers can
more about army issues and extra
willingly trusted from totally different providers throughout planning and

Higher and timelier preparation of joint officers
improve the effectiveness and warfighting lethality of the joint
pressure. The Skelton Panel understood this as nicely and punctiliously
JPM II, implying that such
schooling and socialization would obtain the Biggest Utility and
benefit to their preliminary joint
task.eight Within the panel’s model,
officers liberated from a service-centric Mindset might, as a member of a
joint employees, extra effectively and productively develop options to
complicated army problems. Joint-mindedness is the a part of officers abdomen
inarguably develop into much more necessary

Because the U.S. Army strives of america and the USA. officers have to be internalized in a disaster. Joint schooling and improvement

Has the Purpose of JPME II Been Forgotten?
schooling have undoubtedly contributed to an unprecedented degree of
DOD is shifting away
the two most essential elements of JPME II. In apply and
legislation, this part of joint schooling, amongst others, has seen
vital modification in the final 20 years, and this has given
timing, and, by extension, its

This is due to the DOD to broaden the number
of joint educated officers has led to a proliferation of JPME
II-Accredited institutions, the place they have joint acculturation as a
secondary or tertiary goal at greatest. The most essential objective of
this part of joint schooling is to instill joint attitudes and
perspectives in officers by way of joint acculturation, however JPME II has
now taken on many various types and meanings. The cumulative result of
these past and present
at the moment are less than 13 totally different JPME II-Accredited packages within
DOD, and now of the packages
from instilling joint attitudes and views. These packages should
One way or the other stability their traditional service and specialty emphasis with
the Myriad needs of joint pressure curricula whereas simultaneously making an attempt

Relatively than creating a Deeper celebration of really
joint-minded Warriors, JPME II seem to have been
driven by pressures or a larger pool of joint-qualified
officers from which the Providers might promote to flag or basic rank
or to protect specific packages from the chopping block. The Providers
needed JPME II accreditation so as to afford their conflict school
scholar the opportunity to obtain JPME II credit with out acqu
attending a separate course designed round acculturation and particular
preparation for a joint task. In these selections, jointness and

Every program makes use of a unique strategy and
intensity to Foster joint acculturation. The drawback is that there is
little demonstration of what these packages are
JPME II consequence, much lower than their outcomes
examine to a program missioned and structured for the
such as the Joint and Combined
Warfighting Faculty in Norfolk, Virginia. The lack of emphasis is joint
acculturation was evident when DOD Accredited the Service warfare Schools
based mostly on the commission that they might keep a modicum of
representation from the other providers in their scholar physique and
school.11 Service tradition
predominance is unavoidable in the Service Schools. The Skelton Panel
Noticed that these institutions would all the time have a unbroken rigidity
between fostering joint acculturation and sustaining their distinct

The Process for Accreditation of Joint

The Course of for Accreditation of Joint Schooling
(PAJE) is the means for certifying that each one JPME packages fulfill the
studying areas and goals prescribed in DOD coverage and in
statute. Just lately, several PAJE accreditation group visits found
insufficient emphasis and give attention to, in some instances, a
the shortage of dedication to the joint venture
warfighting. While serving to to maintain the authorized and meant requirements of
JPME II identified several packages that lack the requisite
emphasis and energy to really develop joint consciousness, perspectives, and
attitudes. A big part of the problem with the Chairman's Officer
Professional Army Schooling Coverage (OPMEP), which details the
studying areas and goals for all JPME packages. Not Surprisingly,
prescribed studying areas and differ range throughout JPME
II-Accredited packages, of which solely two are categorically charged to
"Cement" joint attitudes and views.14
The lack of give attention to acculturation and on the deliberate improvement of
joint perspectives and attitudes, as evidenced in multiple
accreditation evaluations, illuminates an issue

The OPMEP also describes seven widespread instructional
requirements for JPME,
perspective and attitudes. ”15 This
commonplace does little to encourage or achieve acculturation, nevertheless,
because of the measures of the service
representation within the JPME
institutions, together with a broad assessment of curriculum content.16
JPME II packages, the statute permits
60 % of the students to be from the host service in a single
Service institution targeted on outcomes, competencies, and cultural
objectives of that Service. The widespread instructional commonplace doesn’t
adequately stress the achievement of true joint acculturation, which is
by discernable modifications in attitudes and views
via a very joint setting the place Service illustration among
School and students are balanced. Too typically, at some Service JPME II
establishments, the PAJE reveals that acculturation was an afterthought.17

acculturation may be troublesome to seek out true
joint acculturation inside quite a lot of approaches are usually
unmistakable. The giant variance in OPMEP-prescribed learning areas and
goals, compositional imbalances in scholar and school populations,
and service-centricity in curriculum and organizational objectives nearly
guarantee disparity in joint acculturation outcomes. But the absence of
widespread JPME II
PAJE to only a obscure
evaluation of what a specific program may be doing to Foster joint

No Longer Right Proper, Proper Time

In addition to overlooking its precept
give attention to joint acculturation, the worth of JPME II to the individual
The Officer can also be diminished at the time of his or her initial cost
joint task. The Skelton Panel mentioned the importance of well timed
joint schooling when conceiving of its instructional reforms; panel
Members targeted on on which Servicemembers and When Servicemembers
receive joint schooling. Ideally, an Officer headed for initial joint
obligation should receive Part II whereas en route to that task — a
circumstance also known as “right officer, right time.” Much of
the protection establishment is, nevertheless, dismissive of the preparatory
nature of JPME II and the joint acculturation it’s meant to offer.
Such derision is partially attributable to DOD-Sponsored legislation
modifications that inadvertently weakened the connection between JPME II and
joint obligation assignments.

As an example, the 2007 National Defense
Authorization Act permitted by the Joint Certified Officer (JQO) system
underneath which officers should full JPME I and II previous to turning into JQOs,
but in contrast to the earlier system it not requires them to do so
prior to serving in a joint obligation task.18
The decoupling of JPME II and initial joint obligation requirements eased
pressures are service personnel methods and offered handy options
for tutorial and cultural managers
Experiences. Worse, it bolstered beliefs that JPME II is just a 'verify
within the box ”requirement somewhat than an important joint schooling,
socialization, and preparatory expertise. Such institutional devaluing
occurred because Service personnel managers have been allowed to view JPME II
only as a Officer. not
Surprisingly, within three years of this alteration two outstanding research
most of the employees serving in joint assignments without satisfactory
instructional preparation. One report, Sponsored by DOD, noticed that it
is the employees member who will get it
attend JPME prior to a combatant command task. ”19
The second report, the Congressional PME, also discovered that many
with out the JPME II and that the
follow disregards the elemental function of schooling.20
The failure to organize for joint obligation signifies that officers are
relegated to learning joint attitudes and views on the job. such
an strategy to inconsistency in Officer learning and danger
reinforcement of, moderately than correction to, service-centric views and
biases. Being the fitting officer means receiving the correct schooling at
the "right time," which is before the officer joint initial
task. DOD can and should do better

The proportion of officers receiving JPME II ahead
of their preliminary joint task has never been splendid, however disordering
the 2 has develop into an accepted and endemic follow. This is regardless of
consciousness amongst many DOD that studying curve for officers
arriving at a combatant command is especially lengthy and
steep — disproportionately so in comparison with typical Service assignments.21
With current DOD-Sponsored laws decreasing the requisite time in a
joint task to realize joint obligation credit, the imperative for
preparatory schooling becomes even more obvious. The Joint and Combined
Warfighting Faculty is the first means for officers to obtain Part
II, yet lower than 40 % of these attending to en route to, or in
their first joint task. Additionally, lots of
these attending have their first or second joint
tours. These JPME II graduates are sometimes lamented that they need to have had
this schooling before starting a joint task, ”while also stressing
their expanded understanding of the similarities and differences
between Service and Interagency Cultures ”after completing the course.22
Provided that many, if not now, a single joint
task throughout their profession, delivering JPME II to them on the finish of
their tour or afterward is a physician attending medical faculty
solely after finishing his or her follow

Right here is the accreditation of the service warfare
Schools might have aggravated the state of affairs as a result of the Providers have
traditionally seen JPME II
common or flag Officer slightly than its preparatory value.23
On this means, it makes extra sense for the JPME II
credit whereas attending the school school when such a promotion is extra
possible and proximate. The legislative modifications in 2007 also permit Service
personnel managers with receiving officers from receiving JPME II until
attendance to a senior service school
task. When attendance to a JPME II-Accredited senior-degree
these are often the senior officers
to the Joint Forces Employees School (JFSC) with the effect of forestall
other junior officers from attending.24

Overlooking the purpose of JPME II. Joint preparation necessitates joint acculturation;

Fulfilling the Intent of the Goldwater-Nichols and the Skelton Panel

The security challenges dealing with the Nation within the 21st
century require an unprecedented degree of
lethality, flexibility, and resilience. Yet it is troublesome to think about
how it may obtain such excellence without deepening and broadening
the degree of jointness. Joint
attitudes and views and the interpersonal belief these enable are
essential to coordination
complete integration of service competencies and capabilities
throughout battle. Certainly, trust is what binds the joint drive collectively
so DOD black return to the event of this now
essential mental facet of recent joint warfighting.25
The mental facet of joint improvement because the intent of the
years ago, and it has solely
to turn out to be increasingly more pressing

Whereas commanding U.S. Joint Forces Command, Basic
Mattis routinely said that "jointness is not a natural state,"
which means that Service parochialism will slowly and finally erode any
positive factors in jointness without steady external strain driving the
Providers to be interdependent.26
This can be a low strain, nevertheless, is slowly and steadily ebbed within the
final 20 years. Whereas now, it will be espouse the significance of jointness
to the cultivation of the Attendant
attitudes and views, in follow this has not been the case. The
accreditation of a mess of JPME II packages, every with a special
mission, construction, and strategy, has obscured the principal objective
JPME II. Without Standardization of Joint acculturation approaches and
goal measurement of acculturation outcomes, Accredited establishments
are free to do what they want of JPME II. On this regard, will probably be
troublesome (however not unimaginable) for DOD to determine a standard JPME II
commonplace in the OPMEP that each one institutions will willingly meet to realize
and Preserve accreditation. Nevertheless, it’s a vital endeavor if this
part of joint schooling is to realize the principal function
envisioned by the Skelton Panel. At the similar time, it must assess the
JPME II packages by objectively measuring the joint
acculturation outcomes. Without this assessment, it remains unknown
or graduates are a more of a result of a result of
attending Part II. At present, the Joint Employees is indeed Exploring how
it could be like an assessment of the varied Accredited JPMEs
II packages, but this effort would require unwavering Dedication and

Standardization and evaluation of present JPME II
approaches to realize a level that’s prudent
and Significant in the Joint Operational Setting, will take time and
assets — it cannot be completed shortly or cheaply. DOD must Invest
in qualitative quite than quantitative outcomes for joint schooling,
and it have to be vigilant in guarding towards the “Diploma mill”
approaches to JPME II of which the Skelton Panel warned.27
But when
there might be a restrict to the advancement of the joint
joint pressure in approaches and consistency in

As a flight faculty is the preparatory schooling for a
JPME II have to be extensively
understood by DOD because the preparatory schooling for
officers headed to their initial joint assignments. In need of reinstating
the DOD must or improve
the strain positioned on the providers, and their personnel managers
send officers to JPME Priority II
their first joint task. That is the service and joint commands
black Reconcile who “eats” the time that the Officer is away from their
duties for this
probability for a profitable joint task. Only on this approach will
attendance to JPME II
common or flag
of the joint pressure. Via a "right Officer, right time" strategy, by
providing Part II to officers who really need it, DOD will obtain
not solely higher value-effectiveness in joint schooling but in addition higher
joint efficacy by means of officers who can overcome the disproportionately
steep studying curve associated with joint obligation. Likewise, DOD black
matching spend money on, moderately than divest from,
the capacity of the JPME II. Despite
JPME II options fall in need of the
throughput wanted to accommodate the variety of officers rotating into
joint assignments annually, DOD has allowed the capability to erode.
Although JFSC produces more than half of all JPME II graduates, cuts it
School have diminished its annual throughput by virtually 25 % in

When the Skelton Panel conceptualized JPME II, its specific and paramount intent was for the Cornerstone for any JPME II. fellow Servicemembers. Congressman Skelton has a worth-for-money strategy, which is predicated on a standard understanding of the worth of money. and JPME II particularly, has by no means been more necessary to the joint drive. It cannot be achieved with flexibility, and resilience. Certainly, these are an important investments. Relatively, DOD black aggressively educated the joint drive of the cultivation of the acquis. The way forward for our joint drive is at stake.

* Concerning the authors: Dr. Charles Davis is an Affiliate Professor on the Joint Forces Employees School at the National Defense University. Colonel Frederick R. Kienle, USA (Ret.), Ph.D., additionally a Professor on the Joint Forces Employees School.

[ ] Notes:

1 Summary
of the 2018 National Defense of america of America:
Sharpening the American Army's Competitive Edge (Washington, DC)
DC: Department of Protection, 2018, 8, obtainable at

2 Home Armed Providers Committee, Army Schooling, 101st Cong., 1st Session, April 21, 1989, 105, obtainable at

3 Martin E. Dempsey , Joint Schooling White Paper (Washington, DC: The Joint Employees, July 16, 2012), three–4

four Home Armed Providers Committee, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, One other Crossroads?

6 Ibid., 4,

6 Ibid., four, Professional Army Schooling Two Many years after the Goldwater-Nichols Act and the Skelton Panel, April 2010, 167, out there at

. 64, 127

7 Though
the report of the Skelton Panel didn’t explicitly reference social
science literature on acculturation and attitudinal change,
there are substantive and substantial help in the subject for the
panel's strategy to attaining the desired joint attitudes and
perspective. Forgost is the intergroup of this help
Contact Concept and the acculturation research of D.L. Sam and J.W.

8 Report of the Panel on Army Schooling, 102, 105

9 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Employees Instruction (CJCSI) 3500.01H. DC: The Joint Employees, 2014), A-4

10 Another Crossroads?

11 Title 10, U.S. Pat. Code § 2155
The Joint Professional Army Schooling Part II Program
Instruction, ”prescribes host service representation might not exceed 60
%, with the remaining Providers proportionally represented; even in
Service-centric when it comes to
scholar, school, curriculum, and environment, and the absence of a

12 One other Crossroads? 65; See additionally Public Regulation 101-189, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991, § 1122,
Clarification Relating to Faculties That Are A Joint Professional Army
Schooling Faculties for Purposes of Qualification of Officers for Joint
Specialty. ”

14 CJCSI 1800.01E, Officer Professional Army Schooling Policy (Washington, DC: The Joint Employees, Might 29, 2015), EH-1

15 Ibid., E-1

16 Ibid., B-2-B-three

17 This
Process for Accreditation of Joint Schooling (PAJE) evaluation
derived from the authors’ participation on multiple accreditation and
employees help visits as well as selected Joint Employees J7 PAJE stories.

18 DOD Instruction 1300.19, DOD Joint Officer Administration (JOM) Program (Washington, DC: Office of the Secretary of Protection, March four, 2014), 16–17; One other Crossroads? 22.

19 The Joint Employees Officer Undertaking, Ultimate Report (Washington, DC: The Joint Employees, April 2008), 10.

20 One other Crossroads? xiv.

21 The Joint Employees Officer Challenge, 25.

22 These
feedback are repeatedly observed in the long run-of-course survey responses
by students attending the JPME II packages at the Joint Forces Employees

23 One other Crossroads? xii; see also Vincent C. Bowhers, “Manage or Educate: Fulfilling the Purpose of Joint Professional Military Education,” Joint Pressure Quarterly 67 (4th Quarter 2012).

24 The Joint Employees Officer Challenge, 69.

25 Martin E. Dempsey, Mission Command
(Washington, DC: The Joint Employees, 2012), 6; see additionally Les Brownlee and
Peter J. Schoomaker, “Serving a Nation at Struggle: A Campaign Quality Military
with Joint and Expeditionary Capabilities,” Parameters 34, no. 2 (Summer time 2004), 11.

26 “Command Briefing,” U.S. Joint Forces Command, Norfolk, VA, June 2010.

27 Report of the Panel on Army Schooling, 112.

28 Ibid., 55.

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