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Invitation to prioritize human security – analysis – Eurasian review

Nina Engwicht and Jan Grabek *

EU overseas coverage initiatives have sought to resolve resource conflicts in producer nations to improve 'good governance' throughout the worth chain for increasingly more commodities. EU-backed reforms in resource sectors are central to the idea of formalization. Utilizing the diamond reform in Sierra Leone and the reform of the timber sector in Liberia, the purpose of this info is to spotlight approaches to formalization. We suggest that the concept of human security is best suited to guide EU motion within the resource sector and in its assessment. Era strategies usually favor actions and paperwork that aren’t but linked to the sustainable advantages of producer organizations. In distinction, the human security strategy promotes policies that target tangible results at the local social degree, particularly for these most affected by the exploitation of pure assets


EU actions in useful resource industries
nations try to serve two functions: to reduce violence and
human uncertainty, increased by useful resource extraction, and promotes a
a helpful investment surroundings for European corporations [1] So a
EU-supported improvement cooperation and peace-constructing are rising
African initiatives goal to promote good governance in nature
useful resource worth chains. Some measures are direct reform
interventions in the nations of purchase. Complementary policies goal at
products produced by disadvantaged enterprises;
methods. In all levels of the commodity chain, one
The technique is dominated by the development of the EU peacekeepers and their improvement
practitioners and legislators: formalization. This announcement offers
its disadvantages and suggests a more promising various

Formation or Human Security

Formation as a Guiding Principle of Pure Assets Management
is predicated on the concept legalization and transparency can improve
to tackle the destructive externalities associated with natural assets
exuberance. The formalization lens has develop into more and more fashionable
during the last 20 years and centralize the EU
Sub-Saharan Africa. Main types of governance in 2007
resource market based mostly on the formalization technique
The Kimberley Course of Certification Scheme (KPCS), the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), Article 1502 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Road Reform and Shopper Safety Act, the Forest Regulation Enforcement, Governance and Trade Action Plan and its Voluntary Partnership Agreements, the EU Wood Regulation and the Mineral Decree and ITRI Tin Care Chain Initiative

Officialization of Resource Sector Is Supposed to Promote State Income
and legitimacy, whereas growing public revenue and market efficiency.
Additionally it is seen as a device to combat organized crime and insurgents
forces to fund violent restoration of national assets.
Formation has thus turn into the reply to an excellent resource
administration. Critics have drawn consideration to the inherently technocratic
and have warned about transparency measures
may be simply used as an ineffective institutional "restoration" [2] under which exclusive and predatory pricing are unchanged. in
These are sometimes favored by giant international corporations
Planning of local economies. Formation can affirm this unfair
benefit from resource availability. Particularly underneath authoritarian
or, otherwise, without interference, there isn’t a transparency
mechanically increases duty. In summary, the formalities approaches
have targeted on actions related to the completion of formalities
their impression on human nicely-being in 2005. t

On the coronary heart of the idea of human security is the concept
must give attention to state security for security
people. The idea of human security has since grow to be recognized
Creating the UN technique, and lots of nations have completed so
concept which is an integral a part of their overseas coverage. Since 1993, the UN has outlined
seven human-centered and interrelated security areas
a person's elementary freedom from want (economic security) and
worry (private, political, environmental, health, meals and group)
safety). Collectively they type the idea for national and national cooperation
international security. [4] On this foundation, the UN demanded
bottom-up, complete and complete policy
human uncertainty analysis. This is believed to be
are the start line for human-oriented, empowering and
preventive approaches to threats to human security from each
local and worldwide policies – or their mismatch. [5] the idea of human security isn’t just about nationwide and international
but in addition applies to peace building and
improvement cooperation. In the subsequent two case research, we attempt
show that formalization-based mostly useful resource sector reforms will not be
The Remedy for Human Security in Sierra Leone or Liberia

Diamond Business Reform in Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone has been managing diamond production and trade
instantly associated to the beginning and maintenance of civil conflict
1991-2002. [6] Sierra Leone was one of many first instances the place
international peace-constructing activities targeted on reconstruction
state authority when it comes to country assets. The audience has aroused
cross-border trading with so-referred to as blood
diamonds, ”the worldwide group needed
regulate international commerce in uncut diamonds and make sure that diamonds are made
violent conflicts in producer nations. First and Most
a serious initiative to formalize the diamond trade was KPCS, a
public-personal partnership between the state, business and civil society
representatives. All collaborating members are legally committed to buying and selling
only diamonds with state-issued KPCS certification.

As well as, members want to arrange a system
inner management via national laws, institutions and bodies
measures on import and export controls and transparency. On a nationwide degree
Sierra Leone carried out in depth legal actions
and institutional reforms. They have been extensively supported
international donors, including the EU and its Member States. reforms
reviewing its mining laws and associated policies
establishes a nationwide mineral office to oversee
policy implementation within the subject, harmonization of export taxes
neighboring nations, the establishment of a specialised police drive
. t
handing over international diamond critics to the nationwide government
Gold and diamond office to curb corruption and
diamond haircuts. A national disaster system that describes all the things
mineral rights, export licenses and associated fees have been established and
disclosed. Sierra Leone also turned a world member
EITI and it was declared EITI-suitable in April 2014.

For many, Sierra Leone's case is like an exceptional success
story. [7] Formation has, in fact, led to the rise of the official diamond
exports. Nevertheless, it has not led to legalization in the nation
diamond manufacturing and trade: diamonds are still produced to today
commerce without the required licenses on a big scale. Most
these "illegal" diamonds are directed to the justice sector and
lawfully exported to the follow that state actors are all
levels. [8] Innovations in the artwork, such because the Diamond region
Group Improvement Fund and, just lately, officialization efforts and. T.
Truthful Commerce initiatives have had no vital influence
miners or native communities
areas. [9] Industrial mining in international corporations can also be on
failed to improve the security of individuals in the mining areas
on the similar time, with only a small amount of revenue via taxes and taxes
royalties. In 2015, export duties on diamonds have been about $ 2.four
million. [10] In 2016, royal diamonds and gold have been collected
was $ 3.2 million, equivalent to 0.1 % of GDP
product. [11] Small advantages outcome from a big mine
contradicts the long-term assumption of many donor organizations
Industrial mining is an efficient means to assist publish-conflict nations
launching its financial system whereas it is easier to control than lots of
hundreds of hand instruments. In Sierra Leone this has not proved to be true.
As well as, a big diamond mine is related to violent conflicts
(for instance, when worldwide corporations are assigned security managers
turned towards group members who opposed resettlement and
air pollution in 2007 and 2012) and food security
social cohesion, health and economic security

Liberia Forest Reform

Warlord / President Charles Taylor and Eurasian Trade Community
partners used Liberian wooden to fund state-disruptive citizenship
struggle between 1997 and 2003 [13] Later, the international state building and
The purpose of improvement assist was to re-focus and reform the Liberian forest
system. [14] Because of worldwide reform, Liberia will soon
has achieved its EIT position on wood. In 2013, the nation signed
ongoing voluntary partnership settlement within the forest sector
legalization with the EU. The EU claims right now that there’s a VPA course of
”Already facilitated quite a lot of stakeholder participation, transparency, t
clarity of legislation, legal reforms and different forms of good governance
Nevertheless, in the Liberian forest sector [15]

the EU's personal studies on the implementation of the Voluntary Partnership Settlement, quite the opposite. [16] Liberia's EITI membership and the Worldwide Tropical Timber Group
(ITTO) funding was suspended in 2018 with paperwork and
Accounting Rules [17] World Financial institution and ITTO have admitted
Liberia has internationally designed, supported and greeted the national
The 2006 Forest Reform Act damages the interests of the Liberian forest
and the poor liberans [18] – or three quarters
population. Likewise, although the home wooden business has all the time been
exceeded the export of commercial exports of extracted wood and. ,
Liberals' livelihood, the Partnership Agreement provides priority to legalizing the EU
Liberian industrial timber export sector. Nevertheless, its foremost targets
– China and India haven’t any legality requirements. And certainly one of them
China's primary clients, the EU frees up a lot of the internationally traded wood
transport of fiber products (corresponding to packaging and transport supplies)

Consequently, the formalization of the Liberian forest sector has not resulted
enhancing individuals's security. Up to ten years, the forest
Communities have signed timber harvesting agreements with none info
legal procedure, interests and native management requirements
the same internationally funded and supported contributions
Liberian government agency, which is legally obliged to evaluate and guide
forest communities, specifically the forest improvement authority. As a
in consequence, most forest communities report contradictions within the distribution of benefits
and regional borders. Typically they haven’t even seen copies
Harvesting agreements signed by Monrovia representatives.
To regulate the lawful implementation of these agreements, the government
the auditors use logistical help from the logging corporations themselves.
These activities are supposed to contaminate forest water sources
food prices and elevating the worth of bull meat around harvesting areas. [20] Bush's meat is against the law in Liberia, however as a result of civil wars have disappeared
Cattle breeding, livestock farming is unreasonable for many
and searching typically gives the one out there revenue. In addition
malnutrition, well being security is due to state-led clinics
are out of medicine for months to the top, whereas roads and bridges are
dangerous, so clinics can't get to many. [21] Some and
There are often voluntary academics between faculties
hardly write yourself and produce alumni who battle with primary schooling
Studying and Writing English – Liberian Language
regulation. [22] This alone exhibits how difficult it’s for forest communities
regards their representatives and multinationals as responsible


The formalization of the useful resource business typically produces impressive institutional and legislative outcomes. Nevertheless, these typically do not lead to an increase in human nicely-being on the bottom. In the case of Sierra Leone and Liberia, these shortcomings may be explained through the use of an analytical lens of human security. Firstly, the reform measures weren’t human-oriented and backside-up, but they launched legislative modifications at nationwide degree, hoping that they might have constructive results, however would not specify how these effects would come from. Secondly, the interventions weren’t context-specific. Because of colonial rule, inherited and highly decentralized politics and the capture of the elite, both nations are far from the perfect of formal state paperwork. In consequence, efforts have been made to resolve the submit-conflict challenges of the nations by means of legal and institutional measures that require in depth central and national institutional, human and socio-financial capacity. In addition, without in depth and preventive analyzes, little attention was paid to the doubtless dangerous disproportion of the varied EU insurance policies. While a number of the EU's reform efforts emphasize local empowerment, this is irrelevant to the intervention mannequin that deals with human security afterwards.

* Concerning the Authors:

  • Nina Engwicht is Postdoctoral Researcher at the Rhineland-Palatinate Peace Academy
  • Jan Grabek is a Ph.D.

Supply: This text was revealed by SAIIA. This political info is essentially based mostly on the article "Human Security Aspects of Natural Resources Management: What Makes Reforms Effective?" Political info and the article within the magazine are the normative position of the European Union within the governance of extractive extracts from Africa, co-funded by the European Union's Erasmus + program. Area research in this article was funded by the Max Planck Institute for Social Research, the German Peace Research Foundation, the Gerda Henkel Foundation and the Thomson Reuters Basis. This text was developed by the Rhineland-Palatinate Peace Academy


[1] See, for instance, the Commission of the European Communities,
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the European Parliament
Council: uncooked materials initiative – assembly crucial needs
Progress and Jobs in Europe, COM (2008) 699 remaining, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2008:0699:FIN:EN:PDF,
Might 10, 2019; European Commission, Commission Communication
The European Parliament, the Council and the European Parliament
Economic and Social Committee and Committee of the Areas: Addressing the challenges of commodity markets and raw materials, COM (2011) 25 last of 10 Might 2019; European Fee, Joint Communication
The European Parliament and the Council: Accountable sourcing
Minerals from conflict and high danger areas. In the direction of the instructions
An built-in EU strategy, JOIN / 2014/8 remaining, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52014JC0008, obtainable on Might 10, 2019.
[2] Alley R, Methods that hinder: institutional drawback
publish-battle reconstruction, Intervention and
Statebuilding, 9, 1, 2015, p. 119.
[3] Extra detailed criticism of formality-based mostly approaches,
see, for instance, Engwicht N & J Grabek, “Human Security
useful resource administration perspective: What makes reform
effective? ”, South Africa Worldwide Affairs Journal

[4] See, for example, UNDP (United Nations Improvement Program), Human Improvement
New York: Oxford University Press, 1993; UNDP, Human
Improvement Report 1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
[5] UNSG (UN Secretary-Basic) Comply with-up to the Common Meeting
Resolution 66/290 on Human Security: Report of the Secretary-Basic.
New York: UN, December 23, 2013, p. four; Kaldor M, "Human Security" in
Kaldor M & I Rangelov (eds.), International Security Coverage Guide.
Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
[6] See, e.g. For instance, a report by a panel of specialists appointed by the UN
Security Council Decision 1306, Section 19, 2000
with respect to Sierra Leone, Y S / 2000/119520. New York: UN, December 2000;
Keen D, Conflict and Collaboration in Sierra Leone. New York: James Currey
Company, 2005.
[7] See, for instance, Bieri F, Blood Diamonds, Kimberley
Process. London: Routledge, 2010; Smillie I, Diamonds. Cambridge &
Malden: Polity Press, 2014.
[8] Engwicht N, “Native Translation of International Requirements: Sierra
The Leonean Diamond Market ”, Conflict, Security and Improvement, 2018, p.
263-92; Schilling J, Saulich C & N Engwicht, ”local international
assets management and battle ”, battle, security
& Improvement, 18, 6, 2018, pp. 433-461.
[9] Private interviews and observations, miners and group members, Koidu, Nov. 2018 and January 2019.
[10] Sierra Leone Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, SLEITI Report 2015. Oslo : EITI Secretariat, 2018.
[11] Authorities of Sierra Leone, State Price range and Assertion
Monetary financing coverage. Freetown: Government of Sierra Leone, 2017.
[12] Private Interviews, Resettled Residents of Koidu, Koidu, Nov. 2018.
[13] International Wooden Business and
diplomatic help for Taylor, see Jay E, Austin EJ & CE Bruch,
“Legal Mechanisms of Injury Brought on by Tropical Forest Struggle
Sustainable Forestry, 16, 2003, pp. 3-four; Sesay et al., Submit-Struggle
Governance in Liberia and Sierra Leone and state reconstruction. Dakar:
[14] Altman L et al.
restoration of the rule of regulation: the position of the Liberian Forest Initiative in 2007. t
Liberia's transition to stability ”, Lujala P & SA Rustard (eds),
High-value pure assets and peace-constructing. London: Earthscan, 2012,
pp. 342-347; IEG (Unbiased Analysis Workforce), Forestry
Assets for Sustainable Improvement: World Bank Group Assessment
Experience. Washington DC: World Financial institution IEG, February 5, 2013, pp. 34–35
[15] EU FLEGT (EU Forest Regulation, Governance and Trade), “Liberia-EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement”, http: // www. euflegt.efi.int/background-liberia, entry April 24, 2019.
[16] JIC (Joint Implementation Committee), Liberia – EU FLEGT Vol optionally available
Partnership Agreement Aide Memoire: Fifth Assembly
Implementation Committee, Monrovia, 2017 ”. Monrovia: JIC, 2017; EU FLEGT
The system, http://www.euflegt.efi.int/liberia, is on the market on Might 20, 2019.
[17] ITTC (International Tropical Timber Council), "Draft
Worldwide Tropical Timber Council at its 50th Fourth Session.
Yokohama: ITTO, 2019; EITI, “The EITI Board is interrupting Liberia
publishes EITI report in time ”, September 6, 2018, https://eiti.org/ news / e-board-suspends-Liberia-for-not-Publishing-eiti-report-on-time, April 24 2019. [19659041] IEG, Liberian Nation Assessment: 2004–2011. Washington DC:
World Financial institution IEG, 2012, p. 71; Personal interviews and statement, forest
members of the Group Administration Group, Sinoe County, June 2018; personal
interviews, forest group governance physique and group assembly
Members, Sinoe, Nimba, Rivercess & Grand Giddeh, February and March
[19] European Parliament, Commission report to European citizens
Regulation (EU) No 995/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council
European Parliament and Council, 20 October 2010
obligations of operators supplying timber and timber merchandise
market 12.11.2010, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32010R0995; see additionally Dauvergne P & J Lister, Timber. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2011.
[20] Personal Interviews, USAID, NGO Coalition and Sustainable
Improvement Institute employees, Monrovia, November and December 2012;
Private interviews, group members and group forestry management
organ representatives, Sinoe & Grand Giddeh, February 2019; personal
observations, Sinoe & Grand Giddeh, February 2019.
[21] Area journey, Grabek J in collaboration with the Institute for Sustainable Improvement, Rivercess, February 2011.
[22] Private observations, workshops with the forest group
Representatives, Nimba, January 2019; private observations, junior excessive
faculty in a group forest, Rivercess, February 2019.

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