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How to make a high-watt soldering unit

How to make a high-watt soldering unit

Most ebike builders have never seen a refrigeration unit, in order that they don't realize it's an choice when switching to soldering bigger connectors. If you would like to purchase one, they’re expensive, however… they are surprisingly straightforward to do in case you are the sort of one that is convenient to commerce.


What the hell is RSU?

Sort of readers We already knew to use solder. Attaching it, the tip turns into scorching and pressing the recent ideas into the 2 elements you want to connect, the elements turn into scorching sufficient once you touch the joint with the solder half, it melts and flows into the joint.

The RSU heats two metallic pieces by shifting the present by means of them. It’s the similar phenomenon by which our ebike electrical connectors heat up once we carry too many amplifiers via connectors which might be too small for amp masses. You possibly can touch two conductive sensors on all sides you want to be a part of after which move the massive amplifiers by way of them (by turning the RSU with the foot change). Because the probes really contact the workpiece, you don't need massive volts.

So as to get an concept of ​​what is possible, commonly used elements can present up to 700A in 2V . In fact, the precise amount of amps you end up getting is definitely adjustable. The same 1400W might be rewound to 120A at 12 V .


How the Transformer Works

The guts of the RSU is a simple transformer, and they can be found advantageously inside the abandoned rubbish day by day in the microwave. (MOT).

In your safety, crucial factor to keep in mind is that the microwave has giant capacitors with a capacity of 2,000 V cost, although the microwave oven is disconnected from the outlet . Use rubber gloves when removing the microwave oven as a result of when you by chance contact the capacitor connectors, they will definitely kill you and … even in case you stay, it should undoubtedly harm.

If you don’t want to anticipate an out of microwave oven, you’ll be able to go to eBay and look for "Microwave Transformer". A very common 800 W microwave might work properly (2V X 400A), but I like to recommend a bigger 1400W-1500W unit (with eBay candidates, I had to give the half number so I can find the facility). It’s because you possibly can configure the RSU to decrease the smaller amps, however any main amplifiers are restricted to the physical measurement of the MOT. In the event you start massive, you possibly can regulate the amplifiers down to any job you want.

I'm going to go a little overboard in MOT measurement because I additionally want to use it as a spot welder for copper copper buses in a custom battery however it's an article for the remainder of the time. In case you are positive you solely need a heavy soldering station, the 800 W motor is ok and in addition easier to acquire…

A standard beam magnet with iron sheets for indicating the shape of a magnetic area. N stands for North and S stands for South

The earth has a three-dimensional electromagnetic subject that’s roughly shaped as a donut (also referred to as a toroid). When you place a simple beam magnet beneath the glass and sprinkle the highest of the glass with iron sheets, the metallic flakes are directed to the form of an invisible magnetic subject that could be very comparable to the bottom area. In the image above, you will notice a basic “double loop” that is created if you display only two-dimensional slices from that subject.

On this article I exploit the phrases metal and Iron is exchanged, however metal is just iron having about one third of 1 % carbon blended, which makes the iron physically stronger however does not change its magnetic properties. The engines we’re speaking about sometimes use a core product of skinny steel sheets referred to as lamination [each lamination is dipped in a clear insulation lacquer, so they are not electrically connected to each other].

The first step is to understand that for those who take the spool of isolated copper wire (the magnetic wire appears bare however has a clear insulation coated) and whenever you move the AC power via it, it might be referred to as the "atmosphere" solenoid. It produces a magnetic subject. Atmospheric type can change its AC power shortly and shortly with out overheating (excessive frequency).

Nevertheless, the magnetic area of the atmospheric solenoid is nicely unfold (weak, akin to knees). However… in the event you put something in the midst of steel, it’s going to turn out to be the iron core solenoid (typically used as an electromagnet that can be turned on and off as wanted, like a motor). Adding iron to the middle causes its magnetic pressure to be more concentrated and concentrated. If the coil can also be surrounded by metal laminates having the above-mentioned basic double loop, the metal core pulls your complete magnetic area so that it flows solely via lamination via the encompassing air.

The attribute of iron and metal, which draw and channel the magnetic area, is known as "permeability".

Within the USA, the current coming from the sockets of abnormal house partitions is about 110 V AC (AC), which modifications its path 60 occasions per second (60 cycle). A typical wall outlet might have a 15A circuit breaker, which signifies that when you multiply 110V X 15A, you’ll be able to connect a gadget that is approximately 1600 watts

. 1500 W, and if they’re operating and switching on one other system, typically the circuit breaker journeys and have to be reset. A microwave that needs more power than that is possible to be related to a 220V AC system, so it may possibly use much less amps to do the job. If your whole house is related by way of 220 V (like Australia), you want a 220 V transformer, however… MOT, which I recommend to North American fanatics who want to make an RSU, is a 1500 W unit related Current of 110 V

The present flowing by way of the first coil makes use of the "inductance" phenomenon and "transforms" the present into a magnetic subject. If… you place a second coil subsequent to the first coil, the magnetic area will generate a secondary coil current without bodily or electrical coupling between the 2 coils. Because the main coil and the secondary coil are usually not electrically related, the only connection between them is a pulsed magnetic subject, each of that are inside.

Commonplace Quantity MOT with Excessive Voltage Wind

The above determine exhibits a magnetic area "double loop" in the form of a laminating stack of steel forming a core. transformer. The excessive voltage secondary winding is eliminated, and the areas designed for the spools to be positioned on them are referred to as "windows". Self-In-Hand Direct Laminate Packages are Magnetic "Shunts" Not Required

The laminated core of MOT. There are several types, and this is referred to as E / I for obvious reasons. You possibly can see the stays of the original welding that held them collectively on the prime and backside of the joint

Within the picture above, the whole lot is faraway from this MOT kernel, and the E / I elements are separated by grinding off the welds that previously held them together (I don’t advocate separating them). The relative efficiency of this transformer fashion is just average, however it’s common because the coils could be mechanically wounded and a lot of the meeting might be partially automated, making them fairly reasonably priced.

Eradicating Excessive Voltage Secondary Coil

The excessive voltage aspect of the transformer sometimes produces about 2000 V (whether input 110 V or 220 V). You must never plug it in, whereas the high voltage coil continues to be in the transformer as a result of 2000 V kills you . In the determine above, the HV coil of the transformer is roofed with additional insulation, which seems to be rigid on paper.

I feel utilizing a noticed is the simplest approach to remove a HV coil. Watch out not to reduce or hit the 110V enter coil. The HV coil could be easily recognized because it has the same mass because the low voltage coil, however it consists of hundreds of small strands which might be a lot smaller than the low voltage tube.

110V on the left and 2000V on the proper. Roughly one volt per block (keep in mind that all transformers use the voltage of 1 turn per calculation)

The two coils should have approximately the same quantity so as to get hold of maximum impact, measured in watts power. Once you input 110V at 14A, you get a magnetic subject with an power of about 1500 W. The adjoining coil converts the output of that pulsating magnetic area into an AC current. It does not change the number of watts, so… in the event you use many high quality yarns to carry the voltage, the amplifiers will stability.

If growing the number of strands increases the Volts and reduces the amplifiers, then we will use this phenomenon to carry the amplifiers, but… thus decreasing the volts. Luckily, decreasing the voltages is an additional advantage because it makes the ensuing gadget a lot safer (aside from high warmth hazard).

If you would like to get the maximum energy out of the RSU that we’re going to have, you could have to fill your complete transformer window so that the copper mass is as giant as potential. Nevertheless, it does not harm something when you use a smaller output coil (you’ll be able to even use two separate coils within the print window). This is the simplest method to modify the output of the amplifiers by changing to a smaller output coil.

I like to recommend one of many twelve "pivots" within the customized secondary coil and thus between 2V and 12V. output (regardless of how thick the thread is), and… is conscious that the precise resulting voltage is approximate. The quantity of copper mass in the secondary determines the entire quantity of Watts, and the Ws divided by volts decide the variety of ensuing amps

[Be aware, all secondary coils will output alternating current / AC]

3V Magnetic Heaters Energy Supply Normally Situated Between Main and Secondary Reels

One example of an inverse relationship between voltage and ampere is the facility supply for magnetron heaters. There’s a small third coil between the primary and secondary coils that may be discarded. They could be solely a few occasions, as a result of I have seen many, simply three laps within the coil. This configuration would end in an alternating present of about 3 V, however… because it has a very small quantity of copper that passes by way of the transformer home windows, it additionally has low watt, main to low amps.

The transformer and you have removed every part from the core besides the primary enter coil, you want to add a new customized secondary coil via the windows and that the coil is threaded in the identical path as the first. In the event you get it back, the output could be very low and the transformer gets scorching.

The absolute highest potential amps won’t be utilizing a fats copper beam bent to "U", and … As a result of it solely takes one turn via the windows, it might be a one volt energy that produces approximately 1400A. This configuration can be unrealistic, so the most typical secondary makes use of are within the two fusion cable cycles (as shown within the header picture on the prime of this article). The welding cable has a exhausting however thin insulating housing, so most of its diameter is copper. Sometimes, a very versatile multi-threaded yarn sort can also be used within the welding cable, which is beneficial in many various methods


Business RSU

made these years for industrial use. “Micro Mark” also sells RSU to practice practice fanatics. Nevertheless, the 250 W RSU of American Magnificence Tools is over $ 500!

This weblog is an fanatic who will present you ways to make a DIY RSU (click right here)

A extremely skilled DIY resistor soldering unit

Within the determine above, the fanatic took a small MOT and altered the custom 6 volt secondary, and then added the engine velocity controller made to the router / saw. On this case, he was in a position to regulate the 110V alternating current that went to a main regulating the output voltage to any of up to about 50 A for a complete of 320 W.

Because the ideas of the copper electrodes might soften (heat) after which stick to the workpiece, in this building he has used carbon removing openings with conductive copper skin (click on right here). They are mild and fragile, and I sharpened my pencil sharpener the following pointers. One other various to excessive temperature soldering (or spot welding) is to use costly tungsten rods, however their excessive resistance means they grow to be very popular.

Carbon Gouging rods are low cost. They can be found on-line or at a local welding shop.

For the first RSU / Spot-Welder system, I might recommend that holders using a 1/eight, 3/16 or 1/four inch diameter rod.

For small soldering, copper is probably the most advantageous tip, however at greater amp levels, the information soften sufficiently on the workpiece (6-wire ground wire is about three/16 ″, found in hardware shops). Tungsten is dear, however its high melting temperature means it doesn't stick to the workpiece, however… it has a high resistance, so it typically will get scorching throughout use. Coal openings are quite low cost and straightforward to modify.

Here is a brief video of Luma Electric displaying their industrial RSU in action (click here). Notice in the picture under that the tip is so scorching that it is really glowing. This amount of concentrated warmth signifies that soldering can happen in a short time, so the warmth doesn’t unfold too far by means of the workpiece. The electrode is then a 1/eight inch carbon rod

Luman Industrial RSU. The second electrode is hooked up to a metallic gear for 6V AC

Right here is another brief video displaying RSU in motion (click on right here)

And eventually a third brief video displaying fat cables with RSU-mounted lugs (click on right here)

Additionally By soldering thick conductors, strange soldering gum can be troublesome to get a workpiece warm, because the copper mass ought to act as a cooling component… which signifies that the copper mass has to pull the warmth away from the joint and spread it quicker than it’s used. The RSU can apply very excessive heat to a particular location before the warmth may be dangerous.

Another vital advantage of the RSU is that it’s sometimes managed by a low cost foot change. This leaves each palms free to maintain the electrode and feeder within the position it wants, or to handle and reposition the workpiece. Some tasks permit using conductive tweezers in order that the two electrodes additionally physically bond the workpieces earlier than / during / after the heat is utilized by beginning the foot change (as proven within the videos above).

electrodes must contact the workpiece to full the circuit, one of many electrodes could be hooked up to it, so that you just want to use one hand to touch the opposite electrode you want to heat…

[When you typically find that you simply want a “third hand” to feed-in the wire-style solder that is widespread, give “solder paste” a attempt. You apply the solder paste to the joint, connect the 2 elements, then apply heat for a few moments to melt the solder]

Regular soldering machines are a bit sluggish when they’re related, particularly the massive ones wanted for giant jobs. The RSU can get very popular very quickly, and then it cools quite fast.


A Spot-Welder

In case you are positive you solely need an RSU, the quite common measurement of the microwave oven you’ll be able to simply discover is 800 W, and it's about half the really helpful 1500W unit measurement. For those who take 800 W, after which the secondary output coil to 12V, the ensuing amps are only 66A, which continues to be very helpful. 800W could be very environment friendly for soldering device . The truth is, it may be a good concept to attempt first expressing a smaller microwave first if you hold your eyes vast.

Knowledgeable DIY moveable spot welder.

I’ve added to the above image to show what the widespread level of the moveable machine. This sort is used to soften two metallic items along with 1400W. Most youtube fashions use picket palms the place the welding cables run along the arms on the tip of the electrode.

Two sharp nail welding collectively. Discover the yellow picket stem and the cable that runs alongside it.

There are two essential issues within the picture that need to be thought-about. Lightweight metal nails melt at 2500F (1370 ° C), which is straightforward to obtain when utilizing 700A. The other factor I would like you to notice is that the contact level will get scorching with SO FAST, that the individual keeps nails with naked fingers. In fact he had to put them right after the top of the welding, as a result of the high heat would move quite shortly to the place where he stored the nail.

When you've ever had to anticipate a very long time to iron your iron that warms the massive connectors you might have soldered, an RSW 800 W could be a useful addition to velocity things up.

Once you get it to work for the roles you do, I might advocate a wooden tray, or probably purchase a plastic field. This can forestall anybody from by accident dropping any conductive half into the 120 V AC terminals (comparable to a screwdriver or pliers).


Soldering Supplies for HVAC Units

Some plumbing jobs use copper tubes and their joints want to be soldered. It’s usually executed using a heat burner. However when you’ve a copper tube joint situated in a tight place near some picket pins … a flashlight can start a hearth. Plumbing is subsequently one of many locations the place industrial RSU can be used (an example of this). I mention this because relaxed looking makes soldering provides in native HVAC stores.

A plumber using propane burners for soldering a copper tube

The circulate type utilized by pipe instruments is a highly aggressive acid-based sort, and could be very poor for electronics. Electrical connectors is probably not broken due to the facility of the plumber, but I are not looking for to mix electrical energy with repair supplies.

The identical applies to the solder used within the copper tube. Plumbers used 50-50% tin / lead alloy (Sn / Pb), and now the water pipe should use a "lead-free" solder (98% tin). The most effective solder for electrical retailers is 63/37 sort (and 60/40 can also be good). I’ve been using modern-SAC305 lead, and I can only say that … when the government utterly banned lead solder in at some point, sufficient storage 63/37, so as to endure the whole of my life.

Rice-based flux (pine juice) is widespread and is right for electrical elements. In case you are making an attempt to get a good solder connection, make positive you’re using good energy. For those who don't use flux, your life has been sitting on the false seat…


Turn this up

I really don't want "spot welding" or RSU. But… as long as I enjoy the experiment, they are often very useful. I have acquired a giant 1500-watt transformer, as a result of it cannot do two jobs. One in every of these jobs is the 700A spot welder, who can soften steel elements together, and the other is a delicate and adjustable RSU for jobs with a 100 W soldering iron.

I even have one in every of these pocket spot welders in kWeld and may weld a zero.20 mm thick nickel strip to 18650 cells. Nevertheless, in my future plans, some high amplifier batteries have been built, and should you draw more than 20A per cell, nickel works greater than a resistor than a wire (about 21700 cells can safely produce 30A peaks).

I can attempt some brass for battery packs (cheaper than nickel and 20% more conductive), but for an important bus material?… I actually like copper at its low worth and sinking warmth. It’s because just lately I observed that the majority builders (like me) did not understand how much bus materials can be utilized to drain warmth, and cool the cells.

Copper plate with nickel welding to 18650 cells

Within the determine above, I found an instance within the business where they use copper buses, but there’s a nickel tab subsequent to the cell, so they can still use present factory-welders (nickel) to weld simply). Copper-nickel joints across the edges require rather more heat (adequate for 18650 cell injury), but… nickel tabs could be hooked up to copper buses in separate operation, and then allowed to cool earlier than welding , however I'm not going to purchase one thing from them! Recognized copper is understood to be highly weldable to nickel-plated 18650 shells, but may be made with expensive gear. I still have nice hopes for a number of the experiments where the copper bus is "DIY nickel", and hopes that the nickel sheet will make the copper straightforward, however … we’ve to wait

I want you good luck!


If you do not intend to construct its own battery (which suggests that you’re welcome), I have two Luna Cycle batteries, of which I’m very glad.


Written by Ron / spinningmagnets, December 2018