Build Components How to Build Yourself Latest

Custom Build Gallery, Joel's Yuba Cargobike, using Nissan Leaf cells

Custom Build Gallery, Joel's Yuba Cargobike, using Nissan Leaf cells

There are various things that I actually like about this development, and if I build day by day commuter visitors, there can be a long-lasting electrical automotive with a large battery and a direct-drive hub at the prime of the record.

header pic is derived from the youtube channel "skyBridgeConcept"


Nissan Leaf battery

A very uncommon factor in this building, which immediately jumps to the reader, is a big battery manufactured in 2016 Nissan Leaf cells. Nissan Leaf is a automotive, and though the packaging makes use of flat movie cells, Nissan decided to assemble the cells into metallic capsules referred to as modules. Every module has four cells, and the storage assembly has two units in collection and two cells in parallel (2S / 2P). Click on here for extra info.

Here’s a picture of two stock Leaf modules. Should you don't change the interior configuration, the single-module threaded connectors give 82 Ah and the nominal 7.4 V

One of the things that Leaf cells builders seem to love about them is handy arm-to-pole contacts for constructive and unfavourable columns (with aluminum enclosures). Additionally they have smaller mid-threaded mailing to the balancing connection on the battery administration system (BMS). These contacts make it very straightforward to construct a packet for a motorbike or a home power provide for use during an influence outage.

Because of the giant kokojensa these cells is rare to make use of an electronic bicycle, but I've seen various motorcycles which have used them. The size of the page are 290 mm x 216 mm (11.four inches X 8.5).

Two above-described Leaf modules containing four cells for a total of eight Leaf cells. Listed here are some metallic module housings which were eliminated.

Twenty cells in stack, module aspect panel at prime and bottom. The storage connectors have been removed and the package deal is now a 1P configuration. Bare cells are 7.2 mm thick

Within the above determine, all threaded connectors of the storage 2S / 2P have been eliminated, and this package deal is now a 1P configuration. These second era cells (2015 and later) are 41 ampere hours, so the storage module can be 2P / 82-Ah (the first genitals are 33 Ah). The cubes of the above-mentioned cells are 72 V (36V + 36V) and 41 Ah Ah 3000 hour (WH) complete power (which may be referred to as 3-kWH). It's commonplace for a fairly efficient system to deliver two miles per hour, so 41 Ah would in all probability work over 80 miles.

Leaf cells are ready by AESC. Early cells have a 3C circulate price (33-Ah X 3C =) at a 99-amp output. Early Nissan Leafs experienced longevity problems in scorching climates, probably because they have been cooled by the fan, and less costly liquid cooling used by Chevy Volt and Tesla. The cold local weather did not have the identical issues. For instance, Arizona may be 115F (46C) in the summer earlier than using a load on Nissan Leaf.

One in every of Nissan's improved points in 2015 was the C-speed of their new second-generation cells (C-speed is their means to offer the present). Because the efficiency of the automobiles didn’t improve significantly, a better C velocity permits the battery to easily run beneath a operating cooler load. The 41-Ah cells of the second genome have a 10C fee, so they can provide (41-Ah X 10C =) 410 amps. No marvel these cells are well-liked in motorbike variants!

Twenty Leaf cells are defined as two ten cell subpackets packaged in a single packet. The copper material of the connectors was taken from a basic water pipe from a ironmongery shop.

One of the fascinating issues that this builder did was configure twenty cells in two subpackets, each containing ten cells. Ten collection of lithium cells are commonly known as a 36V package deal, and two of the collection cells are referred to as 72V.

He made it attainable to use two widespread 36V chargers and in addition use a more widespread 36V pair. as a result of 20S / 72V BMSs and chargers are rare. The conductor and motor present discharging cables usually are not routed by way of the BMS, so the cells should have the ability to provide extra amps than the controller attracts.

If not, any excessive amplifier requirement of the controller might injury the low amplifier battery (with out the BMS system to protect it). Fortuitously, these cells are easily recognized to offer very giant amps, and the controller is simply categorized to 60A. These BMS units are only used to guard cell loading and balancing

Custom Aluminum Case for 72 V Packaging


Hub Motors and Mop Cartridges

There are advantages to central working techniques and controllable hub engines, but… if in case you have enough energy like ( 72V X 60A =) 4300W… The direct driver is a strong and simple system that can climb some vital hills without overheating.

However what drives the hub engine to use? Joel selected MXUS 3000W in V3 4T. This engine can easily handle the 4300W that Joel makes use of. If you accelerate, the system might sometimes draw maximum values, but once you attain the highest velocity and then go to the cruise stage … the watt will slide right down to a a lot decrease degree.

The MXUS 3000W V3 4T was opened.

Attaching MXUS to the 17-inch Moped Edge, which is far stronger than the wheel rim.

Engine speeds are the "voltage times Kv" of the motor. MXUS is accessible in a number of Kvs, and this 4T mannequin Kv is eight.9 RPM / V at 640 RPM (72V). In fact, the actual prime velocity should additionally take note of the tire diameter in addition to the air resistance in addition to the load of the rider, wheel and cargo.

Joel chose a 17-inch motorbike rim, and a tire with an outer diameter of 21 inches. Bicycle wheels and moped / motorbike wheels are measured in a different way and this 17-inch motorbike is midway between a 24-inch and a 20-inch bicycle. Should you use a single cross on a cross, you possibly can even order a barely smaller 16-inch rim that could be very close to the 20-inch bike. In case you are considering using a moped rim and tire set, you’ll be able to learn our articles by clicking here.

12-gang single-cross pattern

I consider that this was a very good choice because changing the smaller diameter wheel (in comparison with 26 inches) helps the engine to be loaded with warmth

The controllers use amps to attempt to get engine design at velocity. The longer it struggles to get fuel, the hotter the engine gets. In the worst case state of affairs, it might be a small motor with a large diameter and mounted on a big diameter.

For those who move to a larger diameter motor, you place the magnets farther away from the shaft, giving them more leverage, which improves torque without growing input watt. Then, when you change to a smaller rim, you will increase the wheel's torque once more to a bigger rim with out lifting the inputs. In fact, a smaller hoop would scale back the velocity of the wheel, so it is best to then upgrade the quicker Kv model to take care of the identical prime velocity. The 4T, which Joel chose, is a mean winding and is found in the quicker 3T and in addition the slower 5T.

One other advantage of using a motorbike rim is that their tires are very immune to getting flat nails or tines on the street, which is a large advantage for those who work together with your eBook day by day. The Joel ring is “Gazelle”.

Powerful hub engines need two robust torques. Joel ordered them to spray and ship residence.

When a strong hub engine tries to drive ahead, there’s an equal pressure that tries to rotate the shaft backwards, so… it needs two very highly effective torques to hold the shaft in place. The above torque is an effective instance


Changing the Yuba Frame

Joel knew he ought to change the Yuba Mundo body to suit Leaf cells, but he was positive he needed

Yuba Mundo longtail cargobike

The purple sq. above is when Joel needed to install a Leaf battery, but he also knew he couldn't pull it out with out slicing the frame. Joel assured that he bought a version that used a light steel body (hi-ten), so he might easily weld it (the other options have been the cargobike with Chromoly steel or probably aluminum).

Measure twice and minimize once.

The primary reduce is all the time painful. You must get it proper as a result of when you minimize off an excessive amount of, chances are you’ll need extra repairs which might be time consuming and ugly. When a small portion of the frame was reduce off, Joel might place the battery case after which begin the method to guage what enhancements can be attainable.

As seen within the determine above, Joel made the correction very highly effective, so he was capable of drive this velocity at high velocity with out worry of breaking the body.

Right here is another thread of further fastening tubes welded.


Further electronics

Under is an image of Sabvoton 60A controller Joel. He positioned it underneath the rack and added a mudguard that remained on the street.

Great Sabvoton Controller

Right here is the management panel Joel added to carry the charging plug and the on / off switches.

To cost two 36 V subpackets, he uses two RC chargers

Excessive amplifier fuse and 4 cell logs to trace the cell of each packet.

Virtually finished!


Aligning the Chain

When Joel fastened the drive chain again, he observed that if he moved the battery case far enough to avoid chaining, the battery weight can be too far from the left. The battery shown within the figure is 174 mm vast, about 6.9 inches. (For these curious about an analogous, the pack of 14S / 52V Leaf cells can be 43 mm thinner, a total of 101 mm, about four inches large).

Joel decided to maintain the load of the battery in the middle line and to implement it, he determined to route the chain to run beneath the battery box.

The lengthy drive chain rubs towards the battery case. The large chain wheel he selected is 53 tooth.

Chain Translators Routing The Chain Underneath The Battery Field

The higher chain of the wheel chain is the half that is experiencing rigidity within the pedaling, and any chain tensioner is usually mounted on the bottom of the chain. Nevertheless, Joel determined that this was the most effective compromise for his wants.


The Hybrid Auto Middle in Las Vegas has a new website to buy used cells from scrapped electric automobiles, referred to as the EV Battery Middle (click here). In case you are excited about flat membrane cells, however need something smaller than the Leaf-cells, I’ve learn many builders who use the Chevy Volt cells with a lateral dimension of 177 mm x 127mm ( 7 inches, 5 inches ), and they are 6 , Three mm thick (1/four inch)

Leaf cells 11.four inches X eight.5

There are various different hybrid and electrical manufacturers on the street, so hold your thoughts open for buying. Because of the massive number of Nissan Leafs and Chevy Volts produced, these two cells are the most typical ones to be found.

Chevy Volt Cells in South Korea are LG Chem and are about half the dimensions, in comparison with Nissan Leaf

Chevy Volt cells have an area of ​​approximately 45 Ah and are categorised in 7C, so 45-Ah X 7C = 315A… nonetheless very powerful!

To another various cells, which are small-sized rod of the recent uneven, I have found cell 200A, which is simply 190 mm x 140 mm (7.5 – 5.5 inches). They’re made for a Chinese language firm that manufactures hybrid metropolis buses. Volt cells are the same measurement, but they’ve rather more Amp hours, but … due to its reputation, Volt cells could be exhausting to seek out.

Excessive Amp Cells Small From Battery Hookup

As a result of they’re constructed as an alternative of the most important amperes, they only have eight Ah. The corporate "Battery hookup" sells 4 of these $ 28 plus tax and delivery (click here)

And entertainment, I’ve a video of youtuber "AveRage Joe" by compiling a package deal of those, 26: 40 (click here)


Written by Ron / Spinning Magnets, December 2018