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Boon or possible bust? – Analysis – Eurasia Review

Boon or possible bust? - Analysis - Eurasia Review

Serina Rahman *

When Mahathir Mohamed Returns to Prime Minister, Malaysians have been Concerned
The setting and the biologically numerous natural areas of the country have questioned how
the state of affairs might change. Acknowledged Malaysian Bapa Pembangunan
In his improvement coverage, his first chief government as prime minister was widespread deforestation
(virtually 5 million hectares) and physical change of previously undisturbed pure habitats
in the identify of modernization and promotion of infrastructure.2 Tunku Abdul
Rahman was the primary leader to explore Langkawi's native needs, Mahathir
it was credited by turning it right into a vacationer paradise that connects it to the world
International Airport and declare it an exempt destination; the legacy he used to safe
a clean return to leadership.three

Supporting his nicely-recognized Vincent Tanin Berjaya Group4
simply navigates the development of huge lodge and golf facilities in Redang and
Tioman Islands; so superbly lovely and pristine as Langkawi as soon as was, but distant
much less. Crucial land cleaning, subsequent injury to surrounding coastal areas
and the institution of small airports for these islands on the east coast
environmentalists and unparalleled biodiversity of islands

The Coral Cay conservation analysis found that Tioman
there have been 183 species of coral and 233 species of fish, whereas Redang had 149 species of coral and
209 species of fish. These figures are a lot larger than the Caribbean and
Purple Sea. Chagar Hutang on Redang Island can also be one in every of Malaysia's densest turtle nesting websites
seashores.5 On the nation each islands are mangrove and coastal forests, but in addition the island of Tioman
There are downhill and forest areas. The island was sent a
a nature reserve in 1972, but only eight,000 hectares of this protected space
that the primary attraction of those islands is their natural assets,
some of which are misplaced in tourism actions.7

Though government governments are often accused of being prosecutors who’re behind the seized land
The island of Tioman was granted aid in 2002 and plans have been introduced
The federal authorities in 2004 for a new marina and airport.8 The latter was the plan
Minister of Transport Ong Make Keat in 2009.
Terengganu introduced his intention to extend the runway at Redang Airport, however was rejected
July 2017 because of "lack of funds" .11 Ten months after Mahathir's return to energy,
Berjaya introduced that she would return to the airline business by reviving Berjaya Air and returning
its shuttle flights between Kuala Lumpur and Redang Island.12 June 2018 Vincent Tan
provided the development of a brand new airport in Tioman with out value to the brand new Pakapan Harapan (PH)
Government.13 Although he talked about that this contribution was to assist the new PH
Contemplating the country's rising debt, it’s usually understood that Tioman
The present airport (when it was still in operation) was largely served by the Berjaya Tioman Resort.

This paper examines the political ecology of the development of the massive infrastructure within the Redang and Tioman Islands and the financial, environmental and socio-economic implications of their selections. far from these locations. The next section briefly appears at the legislative problems of the Malaysian Maritime Reserve (MPA) administration. its links to the development of Redang and Tioman and the contradiction between ecotourism beliefs and increased inequality



Both the Redang and Tioman archipelagos (as proven in Determine 1 under) have been designated maritime protected areas underneath federal regulation.14 Which means the Federal Sea Park Division (at present beneath the Ministry of Agriculture) 15 is competent in all waters of the ocean and estuarine waters, as much as two miles. Subsequently, all fishing, pure useful resource recovery (including sand) or different activities which will have destructive environmental impacts are prohibited.16

Nevertheless, all adjacent forest forests within the marine park (comparable to islands) fall underneath the jurisdiction of the state administration.17 This fragmentation of related ecosystem elements is has led to countless bureaucratic problems in terms of protecting habitats as an entire. Regional disagreements and unwillingness to simply accept the costs of the efforts made by different models or outdoors of its competence have typically led to action and problems being solved.

Studies have proven that the most important menace to Malaysian marine parks is coastal improvement, especially giant golf programs, and the speedy progress of reefs and tourism. 18 There’s a great strain to develop islands to profit from the pure points of interest of multinational areas. While there are insurance policies to stop improvement and guarantee environmental protection, this is in contradiction with the event of financial practices and approvals. This can be a contradiction to utilizing the widespread area to conserve nature and use nature to make a revenue.19 Basiron states that Malaysia has all of the institutional necessities for a sound MPA management, and an applicable company to handle protected areas.20 Nevertheless, fragmented implementation and significant overlapping jurisdiction are inappropriate improvement of these islands. Open access to MPA assets has led to overuse and environmental degradation that impacts not solely the sustainability of the islands themselves, but in addition the ecotourism that islanders have develop into depending on.21

TRANSPORT IN IDEAL [19659008] In precept, eco-tourism has little impression on nature and includes local activities
communities profit so as to generate revenue that might encourage the local
protection of habitats. Ecotourism has also been used as a device for rural improvement
and Group ownership of natural areas. Ideally, which means the communities have
entrepreneurship and take part in determination-making so that they’re
can benefit from their local information and unique relationship with nature and culture
The surroundings advantages tourism of their natural areas.22

Sadly, nevertheless, reality is that such tourism is usually used by exterior entities.
(that is especially necessary on Redang Island) and native communities are shifting to a low degree
work in unskilled work similar to cleaning, gardening and ready at tables.23 On
Then again, there are extra local entrepreneurs on the island of Tioman who can participate
tourism, lots of which began in giant resorts, but managed to save lots of and get
loans for establishing own villas and different tourism companies. Many former fishermen
at the moment are utilizing their boats for tourist transport providers.24

Tourism, nevertheless, typically will increase inequality as external models with a number of capital
and the development of the richest islands and the closure of coastal areas
local communities that do not even benefit from fees for marine parks. this is
particularly on Redang Island, where the area people has moved a number of occasions
and are situated removed from the primary vacationer locations. Giant resort complexes construct fences
their beaches to keep undesirable locals and people who can participate
Tourism continues to be largely excluded from previous jobs. Local exclusion is usually finished
to ensure that the tourism supply stays unbelievable and orchestrated
a perfect island getaway that draws guests to their destination.25

"Ecotourism" and "Preservation" thus continue to steer
depopulation, as the locals depriving the protected areas get into traditional fishing grounds
who gave them food and a source of revenue
Native individuals deeper in the face of growing vacationers, additionally they endure
transition from livelihood to grants and their independence and independence
fishing and smallholders' traditional livelihoods for the supply of providers and
Servitude for Outsiders.27 This is an disagreeable irony and an sudden aspect impact
reworking islands and their surrounding waters into tourism-dependent MPA areas


The rationale for an airport runway extension or a totally new airport is to rejuvenate tourism and improve the variety of guests. This is stated to be indispensable for Redang Island resulting from its distance from the mainland and is particularly helpful for the island of Tioman because of its obligation-free status.28 Nevertheless, the biophysical and socio-cultural impacts on small islands and coastal ecosystems are higher than they might be on a big island (comparable to Langkawi) or on the mainland. because they have limited assets and limited area. The complexity of the island's ecosystems in relationships between the physical surroundings and modifications in human-nature interactions results in elevated stress on the islands' websites

There’s subsequently a contradiction or protection between tourism and sustainable improvement

Environmental injury to the island's habitat has financial prices because of the values ​​that these habitats supply as ecosystem providers. These embrace direct values ​​for using pure assets (reminiscent of water supply, recreation, wildlife, genetic material and scientific or instructional alternatives), in addition to indirect values ​​similar to nutrient retention, erosion prevention and flood control, storm safety and habitat species. As well as, there are existence and testomony figures that check with the values ​​of cultural heritage, the value of assets for future generations, and the worth of the existence of wildlife and charismatic species.30 Desk 1 (under) lists the estimated values ​​of each habitat that’s current in each Tioman and Redang Islands. These figures are calculated for habitats elsewhere on the earth, however they are a great benchmark for native areas that do not yet have financial worth. Notice that these figures do not essentially bear in mind native socio-financial variables and are subsequently conservative estimates (ie lower greenback values).

The selected regional ecosystem service values ​​are proven in Table 2 under. These calculations present a further benchmark for seasonality, latitude and regionally defined ecosystem providers and the value of these habitats on the east coast of Malaysia.

The price of financing a plan for Tioman Airport was introduced in 2004, as shown in Table three under. The desk exhibits the potential monetary losses if the airport is developed as initially deliberate (calculated in 2007). Revised 2019 values ​​for marine and coral habitats have been given in the final two rows, as these ecosystems have been lately thought-about to have larger financial values ​​than originally estimated.31 These figures are derived from the precise location and space of ​​the deliberate airport undertaking

. Estimated Complete Worth (TEV) for Tioman and Redang Islands
biodiversity values ​​have been USD 1.13 billion and USD 107.91 million.32
This worth is a sign of what have to be misplaced if the habitat is damaged. 85
the share of developmental impacts on islands and environmental issues
the construction part is more critical and has long-time period results on the setting
on the coast.33 Growing the excessive ecological value of air transport and its impression on local weather change;
airports subsequently have extra financial and environmental prices than in 2003
improvement planning.34

Economic injury happens when injury happens to nature
drawing both the Redang and the Tioman archipelago. Visitor satisfaction with the panorama
and nature are key to the destination of ecotourism. Attachment to a
destination (and thus return visits) is due to appreciation, connection, and
information of its biodiversity and unspoilt state. Modifications to these habitats or injury
even the efforts to raised serve these visitors can lead to anger and tourist
dissatisfaction.35 More engaging website, the more common it modifications, which leads
that it has deteriorated because of heavy visitors – which then reduces vacationers
experience. Tourists cease going to those places.36 Research have already shown it
Vacationers from both Tioman and Redang Islands point out dissatisfaction with the differences
their expectations of the environmental circumstances and actuality they experienced; some

In applying the life cycle model of the island of Tioman, Omar said that the island has reached a stabilization part and its reputation might cease and / or fall depending on what steps have been taken to revive it based on its largest drawing
(nature tourism), or permit it to go to destruction in announced bids for the good thing about mass tourism
obligation-free consumers by means of the construction of the airport.38 Obviously
An airport that causes injury to both slopes and marine habitats is critical

As a result of their position as MPA is low, eco-tourism approaches to revitalizing tourism
Redang and Tioman should comply with the rules of national ecotourism in Malaysia
(2016-2025) and Marine Park Administration Plans. This means synergy
and the empowerment of the area people
take part in and profit from tourism (as opposed to giant capital corporations).
Curbing local weather change, managing visits to the numbers on the islands.
capacity and low-profile infrastructure improvement serving the area people
needs must also be carried out.39 Lately improved ferry visitors to and from Tioman
Berjaya Holding's announcement of small aircraft purchases to satisfy the needs of Redang
On the island, it’s extremely questionable whether or not prolonged runways or new airports are wanted
might permit Boeing 737 to land.40 It also needs to be noted that the island's appeal
The objects are their distinctive character, the difference between everyday life and isolation.41 Tourism
it might subsequently be possible to get islands if it is allowed to retain a genuine 'island feeling'.

Are aerodromes MATERIAL?

Public responses to the revitalization of airport tasks have been quick and hostile.42
It’s clear that the voice of civil society has strengthened because the 14th basic election,
and there’s extra local company to protest and struggle unwanted or unjustified prime-down
directions. Mahathir, however, now says it is very important preserve the setting, 43
but government authorities have additionally said that the event of a brand new airport is just not successful
unfavorable impression on the island; the media did not specify how they came into this
Conclusion.44 Proposals to combat the proposed Tioman airport embrace:
airport in Rompin, Pahang or Mersing, Tioman and improve ferry providers, including including
Direct routes to Singapore, as that they had carried out.45

Creating a brand new airport or extending the present runway is best recognized
serve luxurious. Research have proven that a majority of these vacationers produce extra
use more assets and have a better ecological footprint than local communities
decrease price range travelers.46 Even with present tourism figures, each Tioman and
Redang Islands endure from water and electrical energy shortages
will probably be relocated to make sure the continuation of provide in resorts when the locals stay within the water
or river and nicely-procured water for house use.47 Even when the new airport is
“Durable” 48 should ask if “visible durability” is as effective as
real operation and prevention for the preservation of pure environments.49

Since 2017, the enlargement plans for Redang Island Airport have been held, and since June 2018, Minister of Transport Anthony Loke said that no official notification has been made. Tioman Island airport.50 No extra news. Given the necessity for the brand new government to reassure voters, especially fishermen, who’re heavily affected by cuts in subsidies, and the day by day prices are unbridled, additional aggravation can result in disruption of tourist actions and extraordinary electoral discomfort. reminiscent of secure water and electrical energy supplies, efficient
waste and sewerage techniques, improved entry between islands, sustainable t
results on tourism efforts, out-of-season revenue alternatives and higher group welfare) 52


This document has proven that pointless improvement of infrastructure at giant airports is expensive. The construction and dear efforts of the island aren’t nearly damaging or destroying the habitat. Legislative overlaps have led to loopholes that allowed improvement in coastal areas with out contemplating its environmental influence on adjacent marine areas. In the liquid ecosystem, the fragmentation of the territorial control of various elements of the ecosystem causes difficulties within the efficient safety and administration of pure habitats. Focusing on meeting the needs of local communities for essential providers can be far more efficient in voting for voters than accepting giant-scale developments that solely meet the wants of the wealthy.

* Concerning the Writer: Serina Rahman visits the Malaysian program ISEAS-Yusof Ishaki Institute

Source: This article was revealed by ISEAS-Yusof Ishaki Institute in Viewpoint 53, 2019

1 The writer is grateful for the assessment and feedback by Lee Poh On, Francis Hutchinson and Oo
Kee Beng ISEAS – Yusof Ishaki Institute and Affendi Yang Amr and Jillian Stakes
University of Malay Ooi. Additionally, Benjamin Hu's useful contribution in Determine 1 is

2 Tang, T. Might 13, 2018, Eco-Business . "Mahathir is back – good news or poor endurance
Malaysia? "Https://www.eco-enterprise.com/opinion/mahathir-is-backgood-news-or-bad-for-
Endurance-in-Malaysia /
three Latiff, R., April 28, 2018, Reuters . – The Malaysian Mahathir banks that may develop into a vacation resort
Banks-resort-island heritage-in-comeback-bid-idUSKBN1HZ0CL

4 Tan, J. July 26, 2015, Star Online . "Cold War of Birthday Boys". Http://www.thestar.com.my/opinion/columnists/evaluation/2015/07/26/cold-warfare-of-tir-day-barthday- boys /
5 See Harborne, A., Lenner, D., Barnes, A., Berger, M., Harding, S. and Roxburgh, T. 2000. Standing report on coral reefs on the east coast of Malaysia. Coral Cay Conservation Ltd, London, United Kingdom. And the Sea Turtle Analysis Unit (SEATRU), Institute of Oceanography and Setting, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu.
6 Tamblyn, A., Turner, C., O & # 39; Malley, R., Weaver, N., Hughes, T., Hardingham, S. & Roberts, H. 2005. Malaysia Tropical Forest Conservation Challenge Report Perhentian Part. Perhilitan and Coral Cay Conservation Ltd, London, United Kingdom
7 See Salleh, N.H.M., Othman, R., Jaafar, A.H. and Norghani, B.M.N. 2012 "Satisfaction of the Quality of Tourism for the Environmental Service of the Tioman Island Marine Park", Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences 41 (2): 173-179; Omar, SI, Othman, AG, Mohamed, B., and Bahauddin, A. 2015. “Lifecycle of Coastal Sites: An Overview of Tioman Island, Malaysia”, Planning and Creating Tourism 12 (three): 266
eight Star On-line 5. August 2004 “Pahang discusses fears about new Tioman projects.” Https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2004/ 08/05 / Pahang-to-Speak-Fears-New-Toman Tasks /

9 Khoo, S. March 8, 2009. Star Online . “The extension of Tioman Airport is off.”
off / # lIXpTLOLxfQhovOg.99
10 Abdullah, Z. Oct. 31, 2016 New Straits Occasions . “Ganu needs to improve to Redang Airport
deliver vacationers. "https://www.nst.com.my/news/2016/10/184706/tganu-looks-upgrade-

11 David, July 3, 2017 New Straits Occasions . "Ganu shelves are going to expand the airport's runway." Http://www.nst.com.my/information/n/20/20/07/254185/tganu-cabinets-plans- extension-Pulau-Redang-airport-runway
12 Blue Swan Day by day . February 21, 2018. ”Berjaya of Malaysia is making an attempt to extend her vacation destination by growing her airline.” Https://blueswandaily.com/malaysias-berjaya-seeks-to-increase-its-resort- enterprise-by-resurrecting-an-airline /

13 Idris, WNM June 7, 2018. Malay Submit. "Vincent Tan offers the construction of Tioman airport, says no burden on Putrajaya." Http://www.malaymail.com/information/malaysia/2018/06/07/vincent-tan-gives-to-build- Tioman-airport -says-wont-load-Putrajaya / 1639532

14 The Redang archipelago was first reported marine area in Malaysia (1983),
Pulau Redang, Pulau Pinang, Pulau Lima and Pulau Ekor Tebu
about 12 750 hectares. Pulau Redang Marine Park is about 45 km from Kuala Lumpur
Terengganu. The Tioman archipelago was declared a protected marine space in 1994 and it’s
The most important 9 island group and 5 elbows on the peninsula on the east coast of Malaysia
about 25 115 hectares. These islands are available from Tanjung Gemok Pier in Pahang
and Mersing Pier in Johor. For more information about these protected islands, go to:
Department of Marine Science Malaysia, 2013. Pulau Redang Marine Park Administration Plan .
Ministry of Pure Assets and Surroundings: Putrajaya, Malaysia. And the Maritime Division
Park Malaysia, 2013. Pulau Tioman Marine Park Administration Plan . Ministry of natural
Assets and Surroundings: Putrajaya, Malaysia.

15 The brand new PH government took the Marine Park Department into the Fisheries Division
and park it underneath the Ministry of Agriculture. Environmental issues raised considerations about this
The evolution of marine parks working in accordance with conservation rules is a critical mismatch
The supervisory authorities. See Ismail, M., December 17, 2018. ASEAN Publish . "I'm waiting for Malaysian marine resources."
https://theaseanpost.com/article/looking-out-malaysias-marine-resources [19659002] 16 To place it simply, which means any water as much as the excessive-degree mark belongs to the Marine Parks division. Nevertheless, the seabed, the seashore and the island forests are topic to state legislation. Thus, even when sand removing just isn’t permitted in marine park areas due to its potential environmental influence, the sand itself (underneath the seas or estuaries of the marine park) is a state.
17 For more info on Marine Park's legal overlap, see: Uychiaoco, AJ, Cheung, C. and Cabanban, A. 2002, Malaysia. in UP-MSI, ABC, ARCBC, DENR, ASEAN. Marine Conservation Areas in Southeast Asia ASEAN Regional Biodiversity Conservation Middle, Division of Setting and Pure Assets, Los Baños, Philippines. And Basiron, M.N. 2008. Review of the Institutional Framework for the Administration of Malinsian Marine Parks through the evaluation period, Phang, S.M., Yang Amri, A., Ooi, J.L.S. and Mydin, A.J. (ed.), Pure Historical past of the Pulau Tioman Island Group. IOES Monograph Collection 1 s. 99-122. Division of Marine and Geography (IOES), Malayan Unviersity, Kuala Lumpur.
18 See Uychiaoco, A.J., Cheung, C. and Cabanban, A. 2002, Malaysia. in UP-MSI, ABC, ARCBC, DENR, ASEAN. Marine Conservation Areas in Southeast Asia ASEAN Regional Biodiversity Conservation Middle, Department of Surroundings and Natural Assets, Los Baños, Philippines and Sazali, MF, Azlan, MRP and Mohamed, B. 2013. Marine Park: Impression on Coral Reef ”, Universiti Sains Malaysia ePrints, http://eprints.usm.my/34980/1/HBP14.pdf downloaded Might 17, 2019.

19 See Spears, EK 2018. “Closed For Improvement? The changing political ecology of Jekyll Island
and Geographical Status, ” Southeastern Geographer 58 (four): 321-324.
20 See Basiron, M.N. 2008. C.
Malaysia Marine Park Management, Phang, S.M., Yang Amri, A.
Ooi, J.L.S. and Mydin, A.J. (ed.), Pure Historical past of the Pulau Tioman Group
Islands. IOES Monograph Collection 1
s. 99-122. Institute of marine Research
(IOES), Malaya Insecurity, Kuala Lumpur

21 See Yaacob, M.R., Radam, R. & Shuib, A. 2009.
Parks Ecotourism: The Case of Pulau Payar and Pulau Redang in Malaysia, Journal of Sustainable
Improvement 2 (2): 95-105.
22 Thompson, B.S., Gillen, J. & Freiss, D.A. 2018. Rules of Challenges
Ecotourism: Entrepreneurs' views on environmental and economic sustainability in 2004. t
Langkawi, Malaysia ”, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 2 (2): 257-276.

23 The low common labor revenue of the low workforce is enhancing by these working in the tourism sector;
many of those islands are omitted. Nevertheless, even the weak common RM800 monthly
Salary is greater than earnings as a result of decreased fishing revenue. High value of dwelling
The large islands, that are fueled by excessive transportation and gasoline prices, imply that many locals are unable to
savings. See also: Abdul Ghani, N., Mohd Tahir, I., and Manaf, Z.A. 2011. 'Is employment
the quality of life in the tourism business? Case Research of Redang and Perhentian Islands
Terengganu, Malaysia, ” International Journal of Arts & Sciences four (09): 173-182. And Hill, A.
2017. “Blue grip: a review of marine protection at the Redang Island Marine Park in Malaysia”, Geoforum 79: 97-100. Daldeniz, B. and Hampton, M.P. 2013 ”Diving Journey and Native
Communities: Lively Participation or Results? Malaysian Case Research, "
Worldwide Journal of Tourism Analysis, 15: 507-520

24 See Mohd Tam, N. and Tan W.H. 2008. “Journey Capability in Pulau Tioman a
from the perspective ”, Phang, S.M., Yang Amri, A., Ooi, J.L.S. and Mydin, A.J.
(ed.), Pure Historical past of the Pulau Tioman Island Group. IOES Monograph Collection 1 s. 99
122. Institute for Marine Analysis (IOES), College of Malay, Kuala Lumpur

25 See: Mohd Salleh, NH, Othman, R., Sarmidi, T., and Darawi, Z. 2011. Comparability of the Sustainability of the Local Group: Case Research in Redang and Tioman Islands, In Malaysia ”,

25 Yaacob, MR, Radam, R. & Shuib, A. 2009.
Ecotourism: The case of Pulau Payar and Pulau Redang in Malaysia, Journal of Sustainable
Improvement 2 (2): 95-105.

26 The event of tourism damages the habitats which are essential for the survival of fishing, and conventional livelihoods then rely upon tourism. This, nevertheless, leaves the group weak to off-season when there are not any two tourists on the islands as a result of seasonal monsoons. Damaging the vacation spot of ecotourism from tourism infrastructure will appeal to or serve extra tourists to spend money on a further danger for the future of the group when vacationers surrender their islands and transfer to different locations. See: Connell, J. 2018. “Islands: balancing development and sustainability?” Environmental protection 45 (2): 111-124. And Hill, A. 2017. “Blue Adhesion: Review of Marine Protection at the Redang Island Marine Park in Malaysia”, Geoforum 79: 97-100. Bryant, R.L. 1992. “Political Ecology: A Developing Research Program in Third World Studies”, Political Geography 11 (1): 12-36. Seminar work in political ecology – the framework used for this evaluation. And Stonich, SS 1998. "Political Ecology of Tourism", Annals of Tourism Research 25 (1): 25-54.

27 See Connell, J. 2018. “Islands: balancing development and sustainability? ” Surroundings
45 (2): 111-124. And Mathis, A & Rose, J. 2016.
and Improvement: The Ecological Tourism Political Ecology of the Galapagos Islands ”,
15 (1): 64-77.

28 Alagesh, T.N. October 30, 2018. The New Straits Occasions . “The proposed Pulau Tioman
The airport can promote tourism. "
can-increase tourism; The Solar Every day 12. June 2018. MAHB welcomes the proposal to extend it
Tioman airport runway. https://www.thesundaily.my/archive/mahb-welcomes-proposal-
ulottaa-Tioman-lentokentän kiitotien-EUARCH554777; Chow, P. 8. helmikuuta 2018. TTG Asia .
Berjaya suunnittelee KL-Redangin lentoja palvelemaan Redang-lomakohteitaan.

29 Discuss with Connell, J. 2018. “Islands: balancing development and sustainability?” Environmental
45(2): 111-124; and Cheng, T.M., Wu, H.C. and Huang, L.M. 2013. “The influence
of place attachment on the connection between destination attractiveness and environmentally
accountable behaviour for island tourism in Penghu, Taiwan,” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 21(eight): 1166-1187.

30 Seek advice from de Groot, R.S., Wilson, M.A. and Boumans, R.M.J. 2002. “A typology for the
classification, description and valuation of ecosystem features, goods and providers.” Ecological Economics 41: 393-408; Barbier, E.B., Hacker, S.D., Kennedy, C. Koch, E.W.,
Stier, A.C. and Silliman, B.R. 2011. “The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem
providers.” Ecological Monographs 81(2): 169-193; and Barbier, E.B. 2012. “Progress and
challenges in valuing coastal and marine ecosystem providers.” Review of Environmental
Economics and Policy
6(1): 1-19.

31 Personal communication: Affendi Yang Amri, IOES and Jillian Ooi, Department of Geography,
College Malaya. Also confer with Costanza, R., de Groot, R., Sutton, P., van der Ploeg, S.,
Anderson, S.J., Kubiszewski, I., Farber, S. and Turner, R.Okay. 2014. “Modifications in the international worth of
ecosystem providers.” International Environmental Change 26: 152-158.

32 Lim A.G. and Md Repin, I. 2017. Complete Financial Valuation of Marine Biodiversity Malaysia
Marine Parks. Jabatan Taman Laut Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
33 Check with Mohamad, D. and Bahauddin, A. 2016. “Tourism improvement progress of two islands
of Malaysia: the locals’ perspective in the direction of local weather change,” Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism
8(5): 534-548.

34 Check with Gössling, S., Hansson, C.B., Hörstmeier, O. and Saggel, S. 2002. “Ecological footprint
analysis as a software to evaluate tourism sustainability,” Ecological Economics 43: 199-211; ja
Uyarra, M.C., Côté, I.M., Gill, J.A., Tinch, R.R.T., Viner, D. and Watkinson, A.R. 2005. Island-
particular preferences of tourists for environmental options: implications of local weather change for
tourism-dependent states,” Environmental Conservation 32(1): 11-19.

35 Check with Cheng, T.M., Wu, H.C. and Huang, L.M. 2013. “The affect of place attachment on
the connection between vacation spot attractiveness and environmentally responsible behaviour for
island tourism in Penghu, Taiwan,” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 21(8): 1166-1187; ja
Romao, J., Neuts, B., Nijkamp, P, and Shikida, A. 2014. “Determinants of journey selection, satisfaction
and loyalty in an eco-tourism vacation spot: a modelling research on the Shiretoko Peninsular, Japan,” Ecological Economics 107: 195-205.

36 Check with Stonich, S.S. 1998. “Political ecology of tourism,” Annals of Tourism Research25 (1): 25-54; and Kothari, U. and Arnall, A. 2017. “Contestation over an island imaginary landscape: the management and maintenance of touristic nature,” Setting and Planning A 49(5): 980-998. 37 Check with Salleh, N.H.M., Othman, R., Jaafar, A.H. and Norghani, B.M.N. 2012. “Tourist satisfaction of the environmental service quality for Tioman Island Marine Park,” Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences41(2): 173-179; and Chan, N.W. 2009. “Ecotourism and environmental conservation in small islands in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia,” Malaysian Journal of Environmental Management 10(2): 53-69.
38 Check with Omar, S.I., Othman, A.G., Mohamed, B. and Bahauddin, A. 2015. “Coastal resort life cycle: an overview of Tioman island, Malaysia,” Tourism Planning & Improvement 12(three): 266- 280.
39 Studies have proven that infrastructural improvement on islands geared for tourism is essentially prioritised for the vacationer or tourism operator as an alternative of for its area people. Check with Mathis, A. and Rose, J. 2016. “Balancing tourism, conservation, and development: a political ecology of ecotourism on the Galapagos Islands,” Journal of Ecotourism15(1): 64-77.
40 Kaur, D. 12 June 2018. The Malaysian Reserve. “New Pulau Tioman airport ‘impossible’.” https://themalaysianreserve.com/2018/06/12/new-pulau-tioman-airport- unattainable/
41 Discuss with Cheng, T.M., Wu, H.C. and Huang, L.M. 2013. “The influence of place attachment on the relationship between destination attractiveness and environmentally responsible behaviour for island tourism in Penghu, Taiwan,” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 21(eight): 1166-1187; and Mohamad, D. and Bahauddin, A. 2016. “Tourism development progress of two islands of Malaysia: the locals’ perspective towards climate change,” Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes 8(5): 534-548.
42 Confer with: Husin, N.N. 23 October 2018. MSN.com. “Tioman villagers protest proposal for new airport.” https://www.msn.com/en-my/news/national/tioman-villagers-protest- proposal-for-new-airport/ar-BBOLIHn and Residents Journalists Malaysia. 29 Octover 2018. “Villagers fight to save Tioman reefs.” https://cj.my/112516/villagers-fight-to-save- tioman-reefs/
43 Sivanandam, H. and Chu, M.M. 21 April 2019. The Star On-line. “PM: Vital to conserve environment.” https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2019/04/21/pm-vital-to-conserve- surroundings/. This assertion was made at the launch of a brand new city park in Kuala Lumpur. In the course of the initial Tioman airport furore in 2004, Mahathir was additionally reported to have stated that “necessary steps must be taken to protect the island’s natural beauty,” (30 October 2003. The Star Online. “PM: Tioman’s environment must come first.” https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2003/10/30/pm-tiomans-environment-must-come-first/) however he was also recognized to have remarked that “the beauty of Tioman would be meaningless if it cannot be enjoyed by more people.” (New Straits Occasions, 30 October 2003. “New airport in Tioman to benefit islanders and the nation.” Accessed via https://www.artificialreefs.org/Articles/tioman%20island.htm on 15 June 2019.
44 The Malay Mail. 24 November 2018. “New airport will not disturb Tioman Island’s environment says Pahang MB.” https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2018/11/24/new-airport-will-not-disturb- tioman-islands-surroundings-says-pahang-mb/1696598
45 The Star Online. 14 June 2019. “Environmental NGO: Build airport in Mersing, not Tioman.” https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/06/14/environmental-ngo-build-airport-in-mersing- not-tioman/#LDelRxQVvzveVm24.99 and Mohd Tamin, N. and Tan W.H. 2008. “Tourist carrying capacity on Pulau Tioman an ecological and social perspective,” in Phang, S.M., Yang Amri, A., Ooi, J.L.S. and Mydin, A.J. (eds.), Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands. IOES Monograph Collection 1p. 99-122. Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), Unviersity of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
46 Discuss with Gössling, S., Hansson, C.B., Hörstmeier, O. and Saggel, S. 2002. “Ecological footprint analysis as a tool to assess tourism sustainability,” Ecological Economics 43: 199-211; Hen, B. 1989. Langkawi: from Mahsuri to Mahathir. Tourism for Whom? Insan, Kuala Lumpur; and Masud, M.M. and Kari, F. 2015. “Community attitudes towards environmental conservation behaviour: an empirical investigation within MPAs, Malaysia,” Marine Policy 52:138-144.
47 Fisher, J.B., Nawaz, R., Fauzi, R., Nawaz, F., Md Sadek, E.S.S., Abd Latif, Z. and Blackett, M. 2008. “Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia,” Environmental Analysis Letters three: 1-6. And private statement/ communication with islanders throughout visits to Tioman Island by the author in 2019.

48 As is claimed for the airport constructed in the Galapagos Islands. Confer with: Egere-Cooper, M. four August 2015. CNN. “This airport runs on wind.” https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/galapagos-ecological-airport-wind-and-solar- power/index.html

49 Grydehøj, A. and Kelman, I. 2017. “The eco-island trap: climate change mitigation and conspicuous sustainability,” Space 49(1): 106-113.

50 Chin, E.S.M. 12 June 2018. The Malay Mail. “Transport minister: No official proposal from Vincent Tan yet over Tioman airport.” https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2018/06/12/transport-minister-no-official- proposal-from-vincent-tan-but-over-tioman-ai/1641194

51 Seek advice from Kothari, U. and Arnall, A. 2017. “Contestation over an island imaginary panorama: the
management and maintenance of touristic nature,” Surroundings and Planning A 49(5): 980-998.
52 Check with: Aikanathan, S. and Wong, F.H.E. 1994. Marine Park Island Management Conceptual
Plan for Peninsular Malaysia
. Division of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture Malaysia and
World Vast Fund for Nature (WWF) Malaysia, Selangor Malaysia; Yacob, M.R., Shuib, A. and
Mamat, M.P. 2009. “The appliance of selection experiments in the evaluation of tourists’ preferences
for ecotourism amenities and providers in Redang Island Marine Park,” Worldwide Journal of
Business and Society
10(2): 39-52; and Ho, J.A., Chia, Okay.W., Ng, S.I. and Ramachandran, S.
2017. “Problems and stakeholder obligations in island tourism: the case of Tioman Island in
Malaysia,” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Analysis 41(four): 445-474.

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