Group Captain Atul Pant *
In the fall of 2017, Admiral Mathias Winter, Common Manager of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Program, had proposed a new futuristic sourcing technique to the US Department of Defense (US DOD) to deal with regular aircraft upgrades and upgrades. Just before giving a keynote handle at a convention in September of that yr, he had remarked that “The present procurement technique permits us to design, develop, combine, check [and] a delivery technique in collection. I am not convinced that it’s the most effective and effective approach, and most significantly, provides and always provides our warfighters. “1
One yr later, in October 2018, pending approval of the proposed acquisition mannequin. , Winter said, "Our challenge is to ensure that we can continue to deliver our soldiers at a functionally relevant, technically feasible pace, and that the pace must surpass our opponents and potential threats on the battlefield." 2  As a result of the F-353 is an avionics intensive plane regular upgrades and upgrades to their software and hardware resulting from quickly evolving know-how. To figure out the necessity, Winter got here up with what’s described as a brand new "agile approach" – formally known as & quot; steady capacity improvement & supply & # 39; or C2D2.4. The new acquisition mannequin includes the simultaneous improvement of a number of futuristic applied sciences for F. -35. It offers continuous updates of latest updates in small batches, moderately than packing them with different features (in one massive drop), and will probably be released over an extended time period. This process is more likely to be acceptable to the Monetary and Procurement Office for ease of reference. business and auditing. The model aims at six monthly delivery durations – for bundling and publishing software program and hardware updates.5
It is very important observe that the F-35 is predicted to supply over 3000 aircraft to satisfy market requirements. The USA and its companion nations. Serial manufacturing is completed in blocks, as is customary in the improvement and production of fight plane. The preliminary improvement of the plane, which follows the Qualitative Requirements (QR), referred to as Block-3F (offering complete fight readiness), was accomplished in June 2018 and is beneath preparation. Ongoing operational testing can also be expected to be accomplished by the top of 2019. Indeed, C2D2 is taken into account important to the additional improvement of the F-35 as a way to maintain the methods updated with technological advances and operational requirements.
C2D2 was expected to be accepted by early 2019. In the initial part, C2D2 is predicted to begin with the modernization measures for block 4 over the subsequent six years.7 Nevertheless, the transition to C2D2 is already underway. The US Air Pressure Might 2019 report clearly states that “The F-35 program aims emigrate to C2D2 quicker, extra flexibly, and more economically by distributing and delivering in smaller installments, finally decreasing our value of doing business. 8
Although not explicitly talked about thus far, the C2D2 model implies that the C2D2 model additionally consists of common upgrades and upgrades of previous plane, along with being included into the manufacturing degree of newer aircraft. This typically means altering design objectives on the manufacturing degree. On this regard, Vice Admiral Winter said that “I ask the system to do a real mannequin-based mostly system design concurrently the potential-based mostly testing. On the similar time. Concurrently with DT and OT [operational testing happening at the]. Real time. By giving us the chance to vary the true contract strategy and costing. "9
The Pentagon considers the biannual technology bundling and delivery period to be extremely short, which has raised concerns about certain aspects of the C2D2. model.10 Even with the advanced development of advanced technology and equipment / systems, normal periodicity is expected to be at least two or three years. Although not all details of the C2D2 have yet been made public, some of the allegations made by the Pentagon are not unfounded. The Pentagon has been critical of the C2D2 model, mainly because of probable problems with previous block airplane upgrades; insufficient time to test and evaluate updates and updates; and short episodes for other required support systems and modules, such as the Logistics Module, Operational Information Module, Training Simulators, and others, delivered and deployed on similar schedules.11
Despite criticism, the US Department of State Power is advancing in C2D2. According to their May 2019 report: "This agile framework, generally known as Steady Functionality Improvement and Supply (C2D2), supplies timely, reasonably priced, incremental combat capability enhancements to take care of airborne capabilities towards the brand new menace from the USA and our allies. " 12  Continuous migration to C2D2 indicates that it has been accepted to some extent. Methods reminiscent of technical intelligence are more likely to proceed to help F-35 customers deal with the calls for of a quick upgrade. If intervals are found to be too brief for updates, applicable modifications are more likely to be made on a case-by-case basis. The monetary sanctions for C2D2, which are also not absolutely recognized, are unlikely to be very totally different from current fashions, although there are more likely to be some vital variations in contractual nitty-gritty.13 When these are launched, the picture can be clearer.
The C2D2 mannequin of F-35 might be only
initial. An analogous strategy can be wanted for most
Future US army acquisitions. Actually, a lot of the army
international techniques are more likely to face comparable challenges –
the need for agile and incremental upgrades and upgrades – as weapon methods
and units are infused with know-how increasingly more. In all probability protection
In such instances, comparable approaches to procurement ought to be developed
as well as strategies, as a result of conventional defense is in all places on the earth
procurement models are lagging behind in assembly capabilities
The Indian Army can also be adopting advanced know-how
growing momentum in capacity building. Techniques, gear, weapons
and the induced substrates are increasingly infused and immersed
refined electronics, supplies, sensors and software. Indoors
or over the subsequent decade, many more superior system acquisitions are doubtless
to construct capability towards opponents. Fast
The tempo of their army modernization would require the continuation of India
quicker capability improve.
Capability shortage within the face of rising threats has been a critical situation, as can also be referred to in the 2019 Performance Review "Capital Acquisition by the Indian Air Force" by CAGs. in procurement.14 Techniques that India will acquire or intend to accumulate in the future would typically require upgrades and upgrades. Sometimes, it might even be needed to vary the QR code, especially if better slicing-edge technologies appear in the course of the procurement course of. Subsequently, the Indian Armed Forces might have to develop an agile procurement mechanism.
India's defense procurement process is particularly sluggish and unlikely to be able to keep up with future procurement requirements. The above-talked about CAG report clearly states that "the capital raising system as it exists is not likely to effectively support the operational readiness and modernization of the IAF." 15 area know-how, is really helpful as a result of the newest and most refined know-how, which is rapidly evolving, is used in virtually all protection techniques and weapons. It will be impractical to anticipate full-time civil servants to be able to comply with the speedy improvement to the extent that teachers devoted to this subject may. "The report goes on to say:" The ministry must evaluate all the course of for sourcing, eliminating pointless motion and simplifying the process. “16
For such agile acquisitions, the entire process is more likely to be
There must be a request for info on the supply of the product
has undergone profound modifications and may must be brief-circuited or
– adequate bypasses / waivers included in accelerating purchases, and –
acquisitions so that there isn’t any delay in the time when know-how is obtainable
shall be made obtainable on the time the concurrent capacity is acquired.
A central part of the agile procurement process is
flexibility to exchange sure hardware methods during 2006
buy or prior to a specific gadget or subsystem
has completed its lifetime, that is, when is a greater product
evolves by means of better efficiency know-how. This flexibility is crucial
– sustaining asymmetry and different advantages for the army
opponent. This might also require an applicable adjustment of the audit
procedures to keep away from unnecessary financial obstacles and problems.
Ideas corresponding to life cycle costing instantly
is probably not good with such an agile acquisition model and
the unpredictability of know-how can even be made pointless.
Agile acquisition or C2D2 mannequin presently beneath approval
America is more likely to develop into a necessity for its F-35 aircraft
acquisitions sooner or later as disruptive protection know-how comes
continue to affect army methods around the globe. deliberate
Speedy modernization of the Indian armed forces, comparable strategy
would wish it eventually. What the USA has not revealed
in the meanwhile, how the financing mechanisms will deal with the new mannequin.
On the similar time, we’d like Indian specialists with totally different backgrounds
research the C2D2 model, evaluate its nuances and variations in order that
something comparable could possibly be developed to modernize the Indians
The views expressed are these of the writer and do not necessarily mirror these of IDSA or the Government of India.
* Concerning the Writer: Captain Atul Pant is a serving member of the Indian Air Pressure.
Source: This text was revealed by IDSA
- 1. Valerie Insinna, "F-35 Program Office Floating on New Agile Procurement Strategy," Defense Information 6. September 2017 (out there July 24, 2019).
- 2. Valerie Insinna, "F-35 Upgrade Plan Pending Pentagon Summit Approval," Defense Information 2. October 2018 (obtainable July 24, 2019).
- three. F-35, dipped in Lightning-II, is a state-of-the-art fifth era anti-theft aircraft manufactured to satisfy the necessities of america and a few companion nations similar to Japan, Italy, Norway, Turkey, and some others
- four. Valerie Insinna, No. 2
- 5. For extra info, see Jeremiah Gertler, "F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program," U.S. Congressional Analysis Service 23. April 2018 (out there July 25, 2019).
- 6. "Statement of Vice Admiral Mathias Winter, Air Force Division, Submission to House Armed Forces Committee, Tactical Air and Ground Forces Subcommittee, United States. House of Representatives 2. 7, 2019 (available July 25, 2019).
- 7. "The F-35 program enters a new part – C2D2", unofficial English translation, originally issued by the Norwegian Ministry of Defense, Defense-Aerospace.com 16. April 2018 (available July 25, 2019).
- 8. "Statement of Vice-Admiral Mathias Winter," Vol. 6, p. 8.
- 9. Valerie Insinna, No. 1.
- 10. Valerie Insinna, "Pentagon Gun Tester Kills New F-35 Modernization Plan Unrealistic," Defense News 25. January 2018 (available July 25, 2019).
- 11. Ibid.
- 12. "Assertion of Vice-Admiral Mathias Winter," Vol. 6, p. 5.
- 13. C2D2 is predicted to value approximately $ 10.8 billion via FY2024. The financing plan definitely requires flexibility to take account of design, improvement and manufacturing variations. See Jeremiah Gertler, n. 5.
- 14. “Performance Report of the Indian Inspector and Chief Accountant on the Acquisition of Capital by the Indian Air Force,” Union Authorities (Defense Providers), Air Drive Report No. three, 2019 . See also "CAG Press Launch on" Acquisition of Capital by the Indian Air Force ", Enterprise Normal 13. on February 15, 2019.
- 15. Ibid.
- 16. Ibid.
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